In my previous column, I asked several questions in regards to the mental health versus juvenile justice debate around violent children. For this column, I consulted with social service professionals to get a perspective on what is and isn’t working in mental health and how can mental health and juvenile justice professionals work together to address the needs of both violent children and society.
One of the agreements is that the mental health system generally has an understanding behaviors are symptoms and that treating symptoms will not cure the underlying problems. Most also agree the juvenile justice system is generally a punishment driven system. The justice system appears more like a “you must pay the price for what you’ve done” type system. Mental health involves many people who have an understanding that most young people who get involved in delinquent acts do not go on to become criminals. “They work through this,” Dave Ziegler, Executive Director of Jasper Mountain, a psychiatric residential treatment facility for children explains. An important understanding that mental health has is in reference to the development of the human brain and especially the prefrontal cortex and its impact on juvenile behavior. He emphasizes mental health has a focus on causes rather than retribution.
Clarence Williams Jr., a professional with 30 years in the social services field and a variety of philanthropic positions, pointed out the wide variety of mental health resources available besides those provided by the government. He mentioned Seattle’s Breakfast Club, a group of community members offering solutions, resources and hope to area youth since 1976. Transitional programs offered through resources such as Breakfast Club, assist youth with a definite direction of where they’re going, as well as, recognition of trauma and the sense of loss. When talking about mental health services, all available resources including government and private community organizations exist. Mike Wasilewski, an MSW and municipal police officer mentions several resources available in certain jurisdictions, such as police-based and led Crisis Intervention Teams, Mental Health Courts and Police-administered Peer Courts.
What Is Not Working
The way children are currently assessed is one way the mental health system is not working. “There is a lack of integration into other programs,” states Williams. “The process baselines what assessments will do to get them into programs. They’re still in a box and the box isn’t working.” Ziegler states mental health’s embrace of the medical model in the 1980’s and the subsequent focus on diagnostics has been detrimental. “(Diagnoses) aren’t particularly distinct,” he explains. “There are conflicts involved with what is wrong with kids and what to do about it.” He states medical diagnoses such as lung cancer or AIDS, for the most part, would be standard regardless of doctor, whereas, mental health diagnoses such as Reactive Attachment Disorder (RAD), Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Bipolar would be argued about and different doctors would determine different diagnosis. “There is no blood test for these,” he states.
Another way mental health is not working is in the utilization of resources. “The resource base is only shortened by who they’re working with,” says Williams. “They aren’t able to work together.” Ziegler used an example of a child punching the security guard while being arrested for stealing from a local grocery store. The juvenile justice system generally only looks at the behavior and the punishment. If a deeper investigation into the behavior was done, professionals may discover the child was stealing food to take home to his siblings because he couldn’t stand to watch them go hungry anymore because mom or dad could not or would not provide for them. Instead of utilizing resources to punish the child, perhaps the delinquent behavior could be prevented by connecting the family with a local food bank. “We need to figure out the causes and address those instead of waiting and reacting,” Ziegler says.