"There has been a lack of understanding of what a lockdown is for," he continues. "A lockdown is meant to prevent access. Because we've never trained beyond the level of a lockdown, we didn't know what to do when the prevention of access failed."
While Freese agrees that any organization should develop guidelines for how to respond in a crisis, he notes that "civilian methods of hands-on intervention with attackers should be very general and described as a last resort."
Valdes sees the value in education. "You can't have the perfect plan, but at least it alerts you and gets you ready to think about the what if's," he says.
Editor's Note: University Crime Watch campus safety resources can be found at www.universitycrimewatch.org. The UC-Riverside RAIN Guidelines can be found at police.ucr.edu/crisis_response.html.
How to react
• Strategos International's three-out principle includes teaching how to lock and barricade doors. Vaughn Baker, president of Strategos International, explains the remainder of three-out principle by taking the point of view of a potential victim. "If my lockout hasn't worked, how can I get out of the location I'm in to get away from the intruder?"
In a true all-else-has-failed fashion, the take out principle uses "fight" as a last resort option. "If lockout has failed and I can't get out because I'm on the second or third floor, now I have to fight," he explains.
Strategos's courses then talk about using the victim's environment to their advantage. "What do I have around me to help me fight this person? What can I do to inflict damage onto the intruder trying to kill us?"
• Response Option's ALICE (Alert, Lockdown, Inform, Counter, Evacuate) program teaches what actions are available for victims based on vital knowledge gained during the situation.
Alert (A) transcends the announcement of a code word for securing doors and barricading. An advocate of options, Crane wants to give people choices so they can make a decision as to what they need to survive.
"That decision is going to be based on information," he says. He explains that if an institution is able to announce a code word, they should also be able to get out information such as what, where, who and any other details, and use them to make a good decision as to whether they should lockdown or not.
Inform (I) broadcasts updated information as the situation progresses. He suggests utilizing, if installed, the surveillance camera system to watch the situation.
Counter (C) offers simple strategies in using tactical advantages to aid survival, including swarm, limb control, take-down and distractions.