Pre-frontal Cortex (PFC)
This section of the brain appears to go through the most changes during adolescence. Like the cerebellum, it doesn't fully mature until the mid-20s. The PFC affects behavioral and cognitive functions and is responsible for inhibiting inappropriate behavior, initiating appropriate behavior, organizing things, making decisions, setting priorities, empathy, insight and judgment. With the PFC being in charge of all these things and teens having not-fully developed PFCs, it's easy to see how teens can make impulsive, gut-emotion based poor decisions and why it is so important for adults to help them with their reasoning and their choices.
Along with the developing brain, an increase in hormones during adolescence affects teen cognition and behavior. During infancy, estrogen and testosterone surge. Then they disappear for a while, but come back with a vengeance around 8 (females) and 10 (males). Receptors are sprinkled throughout the developing brain, such as in the cortex, cerebellum, amygdale and the hippocampus. The variation in amount of hormones in each gender affects brain development in ways which influence behavior. The physical maturation hormones bring about also affect adult's perception. For example, it is easier to treat a 6'2", deep-voiced 15 year-old male with size 12 shoes like an adult than a 5'2", high-toned 15 year-old male with a size 5. This also affects our perception of culpability especially in response to criminal activity.
Many teens are risk-takers and this often results in law enforcement trouble. Teens hate to be bored. The production of dopamine in a teen's brain and the high they experience drive many of their behaviors. They crave excitement. Another good quote I heard at my workshop was, "Teens don't think they are immortal. They know they're mortal. They just don't prioritize it." Teens get bored easy and often do high-risk things when they experience it. Interesting though, research has found the one risk not rewarding to the teen brain embarrassment. This has implications in a number of criminological practices, including re-integrative shaming.
Another important factor in teen brain development is the affect of trauma. A one time traumatic event, such as a sexual assault, or reoccurring trauma, such as abuse or neglect, can change the brain and affect development. Neuroscience shows how trauma can change the size of the parts of the brain, levels of hormones and delay maturation. Teens who deal with trauma often have an exaggerated fight, flight or freeze response to perceived danger due to utilizing the amygdala for emotional response because of an under-developed PFC.
Science allows us to see the functioning of the teen brain. Having an understanding of this brain development allows us to respond to teen behavior in a way that will assist in maturation, essentially being their auxiliary pre-frontal cortex. Some things we, as adults need to understand are teens:
- Need the "arguing/complaining" to feel they are in a safe relationship in which to be heard
- Are going to second guess, negotiate, refuse to concede and discuss at length
- Are going to forget, get distracted, deprioritize and challenge boundaries
- Are going to be emotionally charged, befuddled and on edge
- Be understanding of a teen's point of view
- Ask for good behavior rather than demanding it
- Make one request at a time
- Look for specific things to praise
- Say positive things
- Be firm but friendly
- Set boundaries with clear consequences instead of trying to convince teens to make good decisions
The good thing is 90% of teens traverse their adolescent years with success. It's nice to keep that in mind since those we are working with make up the 10% that are struggling. When you're surrounded by those who are not being successful, it's easy to forget about the majority that are making good decisions and growing up healthy. I'm grateful to brain science for allowing me to rethink the way I perceived my own teen, as well as, those I work with. Hopefully with this new understanding, I will be more effective in being the auxiliary pre-frontal cortex for the teens in my life.