Another tool, “Tweak the Tweet (TtT)” – part of Project EPIC (Empowering the Public in Crisis) at the University of Colorado-Boulder—formalizes and structures Twitter-based emergency communications, using “hashtags” (words headed by the # symbol) for certain keywords such as #needhelp or #loc (location). This makes it easier for emergency responders to understand what is needed where, by whom.
TtT is also helping researchers understand how people transmit and receive information during a crisis, so that as social media evolve and current tools give way to new tools, emergency response will be able to adapt accordingly. “We have to be critical of what social media can and can't do,” cautions Dr. Leysia Palen, principal investigator on Project EPIC. “The way we understand social media tools and the ways they are useful now is not where they will end up.” This makes it all the more important for ICs to stay on top of the technology and how they and their citizens use it.
Just as ICs learned to use radio, newspaper, and television formats to communicate with the public during crisis, so they must learn how blogs, tweets and online video can deliver their message in real time. Ideal messaging is consistent and clear enough to take central stage, effectively leading the citizens in their own response to the crisis.
However, the old model of public information updates every 12 hours will no longer fly. “It's frustrating for PIOs not to be able to verify social updates officially because they don't know, or because the IC is thinking in terms of 12-hour updates,” says Palen. “ICs need to enable PIOs, to put permissions in place for them to verify and communicate information as they receive it.”
In an April 2009 white paper, Gerald Baron, founder of the Public Information Emergency Response (PIER) System, outlined five steps that modern ICs must take for effective messaging. In addition to “full spectrum monitoring” of both news and social media, he advocated for increased autonomy while maintaining information discipline; the fast approval of individual facts; continuous web updates and direct distribution via incident-specific, joint information center (JIC)-maintained websites; and “appropriate” use of social media, or using social tools to direct readers to the incident-specific website.
These recommendations take into account the “sharing” nature of social media, especially Twitter, where “retweeting” a piece of information takes only a mouse click. However, they also take into account the very real problems associated with information security, veracity and reliability. “Trustworthiness is different in emergencies than it is in normal life because the information changes so quickly,” says Palen. That means it is all the more important for ICs to get it right in real time.
Outside the crisis
A crisis is not the time to start integrating social media into ICS communications. As described in the previous examples, the tools are far too volatile. Each site has its own purpose, culture, and population; each site draws members from around the world as well as within one's own community; each site has its own format, and thus inherent strengths and weaknesses. In addition, the use of certain tools (such as video) during a crisis carries serious ethical considerations, notably regarding privacy.
Social media use depends on the emergency, too. A mass crime demands a different response from a natural disaster, and even response to a wildfire is different from response to a major storm that is still three days out.
Added to these issues, says Palen, the PIO's role is changing. “It's not just about transmitting public information anymore,” she says. “It's also tactical, filtering information to be acted upon.” That means that as Baron describes, the PIO's function may need to be in much closer proximity to the IC so that it is easier to decide what to release.
While a total lack of crisis-related social monitoring or response would be a black mark against an agency, so too would the misuse of social tools. Thus not only should agencies incorporate social media into crisis response drills; they should also work to make the tools part of their overall public communication and intelligence collection efforts, and to keep careful tabs on how the tools and their use evolve. This promotes the most consistent, responsible and effective information transfer no matter when the public expects or needs it.