NEW YORK (AP) — New York Mayor Michael Bloomberg and his police commissioner took responsibility for keeping the city safe in the aftermath of the Sept. 11, 2001 attacks. And for years, their approach was seen as nearly beyond question, as the threat of terror attacks was kept at bay and the crime rate fell to record lows.
Now, as the mayor and Police Commissioner Raymond Kelly near the end of Bloomberg's 12-year tenure, they face a backlash against the street stops and surveillance programs they call cornerstones of building "America's safest big city."
A federal judge this month gave credence to years of complaints that the New York Police Department has stopped millions of people in a racially discriminatory way, ordering a monitor to oversee sizable changes. A City Council that scaled back a 2004 anti-racial profiling law this week voted to make it easier to sue over profiling claims and established a watchdog to investigate police procedures, defying Bloomberg vetoes.
Bloomberg, whose third and final term ends at the end of year, is appealing the court ruling.
Is it a defining episode or a footnote in the administration's public safety history? That will be up to the next mayor, New Yorkers' memories and what unfolds in the courts and on the streets, observers say.
"We may have reached an historic point — depending upon what happens," said William Eimicke, a Columbia University public affairs professor who was a deputy city fire commissioner from 2007 to 2010.
Bloomberg, a billionaire who considers himself a political independent, is clear about how he sees his policing record. He warns that the recent calls to rein in stop and frisk might only prove his policies were right.
"It's been almost 12 years now where people have walked the streets of New York City without having to look over their shoulder. I suspect that's a pretty good legacy," he said after the court decision. Break the NYPD's embrace of stop and frisk, he admonished successors, and "be responsible for a lot of people dying."
Terrorism was the top safety concern when Bloomberg took office in January 2002, reappointing Kelly to the commissioner's job he'd held from 1992 to 1994. They set about sculpting a muscular antiterrorism operation with more than 1,000 officers, some sent overseas to gather information.
Building on a drop in street crime that started under Mayor Rudy Giuliani, Bloomberg and Kelly stepped up the use of statistics to pinpoint crime hotspots and flood them with officers. The mayor became a national voice on gun control. And they upped emphasis on stopping, questioning and sometimes frisking people seen as doing something suspicious but not plainly arrest-worthy: 97,296 stops in 2002 rose to 685,724 in 2011, dropping to 533,042 last year.
There were flares of tension, including over mass arrests of demonstrators during the 2004 Republican National Convention and the 2006 shooting of an unarmed bridegroom on his wedding day.
But overall, the message many New Yorkers heard was one of foiled terror plots and America's lowest big-city crime rate, as measured by the FBI. Killings repeatedly hit the lowest points on record and are on track for another record low this year.
Kelly has enjoyed the highest approval ratings of any city official.
Still, over the last two years, long-rumbling complaints about stop and frisk became a roar amplified by the mayoral race, in which Bloomberg is not eligible to run for a fourth term.
The extent of the NYPD's surveillance of Muslims came to light when The Associated Press detailed tactics that included infiltrating Muslim student groups and putting informants in mosques, disclosures that partly fueled the City Council legislation.
Bloomberg and Kelly went on the offensive, denouncing the practices' critics and portraying the stakes in ominous terms. "Remember what happened here on 9/11," Bloomberg chided in one speech.