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OBJECTIVE: Instructors will be able to maintain a safe training environment while conducting f-o-f simulations It is not a instructor development course, nor a scenario development course, although theses subjects are touched upon. Ken Murray s Training at the Speed of Life is a good resource here" ""d"""", AssumptionsThis course is designed for current firearms instructors. All potential instructors are familiar with current firearms and use of force doctrine and binding court decisions. All potential instructors are familiar with the concept of the force continuum and the proper place of firearms within it. The content and conduct of f-o-f simulations will be in line with agency use of force policy. ,9"P?(Three Levels of Training $Static: Range drills Weapons fundamentals Dynamic: Video simulators Decision making Interactive: Role-playing simulations Performance evaluationZZZZ&ZZ$ $ &$  Definitions: Simulation Types"$fSimulation refers to a realistic role-played enactment of potentially real situations. Force need not be involved. Force-on-force simulations are those requiring the use of some level of potential force by at least one role player. Integrated use of force simulations require at least one transition between force levels on the part of the officer student. bf k gf Reasons For Simulations$To improve officer performance To increase officer safety To increase public safety To induce training that is a realistic as possible To inoculate against the effects of stress and body alarm reaction To assess officer behavior in realistic situations To remediate such behavior as necessary To uncover areas of training deficiency--officer s and departments To reinforce good tactics To develop and assess judgmental skills To develop and test new tactics Morale and confidence builderLegal Dictates for Simulations$2Graham v. Connor 109 S.Ct. 1865 (1989) Board of County Commissioners of Bryon County, Oklahoma v. Brown, 520 U.S. 397, (1997) Oklahoma v. Tuttle 471 U.S. 808 (1985) City of Canton v. Harris, 489 U.S. 378 (1989) Tennessee v. Garner, 471 U.S. 1 (1985) Walker v. City of New York 974 F.2nd 292 (2nd Cir. 1992) Brown v. Gray, 227 F.3rd 1278 (10 Cir 2000) Allen v. Muskogee 119 F.3rd, 837 (10 Cir. 1997) Leatherman v. Tarrant County Narcotics and Intelligence and Coordination Unit, 113 S.Ct. 1160 (1993) Zuchel v. City and County of Denver, 997 F.2nd 730 (10 Cir. 1993) Popow v. City of Margate, 476 F.Supp. 1237 (D.N.J. 1979) Cornfield v. Consolidated High School District No. 230, 991 F.2nd 1316 (1993) Votour v. Vitale, 761 F.2nd 812 (1985) Davis v. Mason County State standards insufficient!Z"*"*""*-"*"*"*&"* "Message From the Courts$More frequent training Moving targets Reduced Light Judgmental training Use of cover Realistic environments Policy reinforcement Force level integration and transitions Relevance to assignments: patrol, undercover, investigations, undercover, etc.8Z""9# Good QuestionQUESTION: Have there been any court cases that have vindicated simulation training? ANSWER: Cases in which the police have a strong case are seldom appealed to the levels that make case law.& Kl/Simulation Technologies@Most Realistic Paintball Simunitions FX and similar Airmunitions Airsoft Quite Practical Dry real guns  but not recommended Blue guns Water pistols Cap guns^=Ev=E0 Paintball v .40 - .68 caliber balls typical Up to 300 hundred fps Compressed CO2 and N2 powered Long guns and handguns available One-several hundred dollars Non-restricted&" 1!Paintball Strengths / Weaknesses"" "Strengths Inexpensive Guns and gear easy to find Pain compliance Marking Weaknesses Not like real guns Can t use standard gear  holsters, etc Un-natural physical orientation necessary MarkingT ? m ? m2Simunitions FX and SimilartFires real rounds with paint filled bullet Approx. 400 fps Uses real but modified guns Restricted to LE and military31Simunitions FX & Similar Strengths / WeaknessespStrengths Actual weapons can use real gear Marking Pain compliance Weaknesses Actual weapons live fire potential Expensive both guns and rounds Guns must be continually cleaned MarkingL 9 k 9 kAirsoft$1:1 replicas 6mm BBs ABS or starch 0.12g - 0.5g 200-450 fps Hop-Up = underspin Spring guns (Green) Gas guns CO2 guns AEGs (Automatic Electric Guns) Note: upgrades and alterations potentially undesirableZZ7Z0 2 \-Airsoft Demonstration9 Demonstration and hand-on session with Airsoft weapons,88Airsoft Strengths$DLittle injury potential, even at close quarters Inexpensive True replica guns available  broad selection - normal equipment, techniques and tactics can be used Non-regulated devices Non Marking - can use actual deployment environments for training  buildings, cruisers, etc. No set-up time No specialized training required on part of participants Little protective equipment necessary  can use normal clothing, etc.@)Airsoft Weaknesses$(Non-marking? We don t think so Too little pain? Depends on protection Fragile Can t drop guns or magazines Handguns less reliable than we d preferA*A Word on BlanksActual blank guns are dangerous You re using real guns The gas/projectiles can cause injury SafeShot or similar You re using real guns Nothing escapes the gun so safer But all they do is make noise! Worth the risk and expense? Why not use dummy guns? Z<ZZ8ZZ4Z <84  5The Law of Large NumbersAny activity performed tens of thousands of times a year will result in every possible outcome Therefore we must strive for perfection, not just  safe enough & because 0.01% of ten thousand is someone s life! Currently about 2 officers lost per year in training Water leakage analogy No leakage is acceptable in a house Any leakage causes damage*>>B+Fatality Example0SWAT Exercise Real weapons used in training Loaded rifle introduced into area Officer was sent back to station to obtain it Rifle then  dry fired at PON@.@.7!Fatality ExampleTactical training Real weapons used in training Team loaded in van after lunch Member grabs mag from van after having trouble with his PO shot with live round from the magazine during exercise&6 Fatality ExampleFederal SpecOps Team Using MILES LASER system Live mag inserted into rifle Pre-exercise inspection had failed to find the live mag Team member killed&8"Fatality ExampleCanada Real weapons used in training Officer left training area to get camera from car Officer reloaded pistol since he was going into a public area He failed to clear when re-entering training area&;$Common Killing ThemesSafety protocol was insufficient  by definition People not searched in initially People leave training area and return without being search Real weapons used in training Why?????? Unloaded real guns = dummy guns Reserve real weapons for marksmanship training Dummy and non-lethal projectile training guns for movement and tactics training4" ZZ=%$In Grandpa's Day& .$In Grandpa's day, range safety was minimal Today, we live and breathe the 4 firearms safety rules Today, simulation safety is minimal We must learn to be paranoid about  safety leakages It s a mindset/cultural changeK5TA Life-Saving Safety Protocol Two CriteriaNMust be completely safe Zero% safety leakage by design Must be practical cannot be so cumbersome, time-consuming, or resource intensive that it is impractical to implement Ballistic vest comfort / usage analogy No inordinate  rings of safety Uses reasonable number of people Takes little time " ZZu" ZzZZ uz  C-Two Kinds of Danger$5From Projectiles From live weapons in training area 6#6 +"Managing Airsoft Projectile Hazard##$^All role players (minimum) Goggles Neck protection Face protection Women: vest or other breast protection All participants (minimum) Goggles Optional but recommended Groin protection Gloves strongly recommended Long pants/shirt Ear protection strongly recommended Mouth guard Scalp protection  ball capZOZZZZZO  D.9Managing Simunitions FX and Paintball Projectiles Hazard::$All participants (minimum) Eye protection Neck protection Face protection Women: vest or breast protection Groin protection Gloves Long pants/shirt Ear protection Mouth guard Scalp protection  ball cap* .Making Simulation Area Safe From Live Weapons//$Physically separate Taped off if no hard physical boundary Difficult with expanded or mobile simulations But no excuse for not doing it! ONE entry point X exit points Free from non-participantsU U       E/Sanitizing Chamber$Here weapons are removed, unloaded if necessary, and stored Bags/gear stored here, too Good idea to have a ballistic barrier for unloading Must be outside of the simulation area Must be locked or guarded at all timesF0 The Arsenal $Here training weapons are distributed Can be just outside the simulation area, put preferable to have it inside the area Only Instructor, AIs or SOs can distribute training weaponsL6Weapons ConsiderationsALL simulated weapons must be identifiable in hand and in holster Color band around grip and foregun Color coding? If you have multiple types of confusable training weapons All live-weapon four safety rules apply Training guns can cause injuries!TBl("B l( "<&Extended/Multiple Sites$jQuestion: What about multiple sites like sniper s nests? Answer: Make multiple sterile simulation areas, with appropriate safety officers (possibly in radio comm with Instructor.)03u4"Two People Responsible for Safety##$l Instructor Safety Officer(s)  Instructor designated> *6$ .Who s Also Responsible?$.EVERYONE is responsible All participants are required to call attention to safety violations Danger of  cool factor Brings out the child in everyone E! ' !   " fInstructor s Responsibilities  Prior to Simulation44$<Designing or approving the simulation Critical  NO un-aware participants in area! Designing the documentation Scripts for role players Training documentation Student paperwork Designing or approving the simulation area(s) Designing or approving the sanitizing chamber and the arsenal ~&-Bm&-BmH2vInstructor s Responsibilities  Prior to Simulation  con t<<$Designating SOs and AIs Getting all student paperwork filled out Making sure all pre-existing injuries are worked around Put the onus on the student to report a priori Mark student & brief role players about injury Align training weapons with protective equipmentBy^2y^2,7  G1dInstructor s Responsibilities  During Simulation"32$ "Starting the simulation in action Stopping the action for safety or remediation Declaring the simulation over Keeping track of which projectiles hit whom Overall safety of the participants and bystanders Student coaching during the simulation Student de-briefing afterwardsHI&&*&>Z| .>SO s Responsibilities  One Job $(At least one SO designated NOT the Instructor One person cannot maintain control of all functions SO has NO other responsibilities other than safetyD.43. 43 hI3DSO s Responsibilities  Clear Area##$Initial clear of area of ALL weapons and ammunition with 2-step protocol: Visual clear of the area Interrogative clear of the area Should also clear of other dangers  glass, sharp objects, tripping hazards, etc.`J Z9" ZR ZJ 9R ,W SJ4VSO s Responsibilities  Clear Participants,,$(Inspection of EVERY person coming into area with 3-step protocol Visual search of person Physical search of person Areas likely to contain weapons Cross-gender OK with discretion and search sticks Wanding has problems Interrogation of person Students can also check each other"ZZ2 ZgZ Z# Z"2g  #>H h$  8SO s Responsibilities - More$SO decisions FINAL  Instructor cannot over-rule If SO loses continuous control of area, must clear area and start from scratchD1OnM7Identification$SOs, AIs and Instructor visually identifiable  bright cap or vest Non-participants can be color-coded as out of play 0v  `! rCreating Safe Area From Live Weapons Other Considerations::$At least one first responder kit on site All injuries sustained must be reported to Instructor 2nd safety violation = expulsion Horseplay is a violation All weapons present must be inert: OC, baton, pistol, non-lethal, etc. Dislodged protective equipment mandates stopping the action All weapons use under the eye of the Instructor  no student freelancingXZZZ)TN8Taser ConsiderationsMust allow live Taser or dummy Taser Live Taser can have no cartridges or training cartridges  SO must search appropriately Training cartridges mandate a taser training suit for role players Can get expensive Best bet is maybe no cartridges Train Taser firing separatelyTZZ ZZ #*Simulations Two Types$7 Teach a skill or desired behavior See what happens H% "  $To See What Happens$wSet it up Script appropriately Let it unfold Useful to: Explore a situation - research As a test of skills - assessmentH-"  @- @%"To Teach a Skill/Desired Behavior *#$"$$Requires careful thought and preparation Must build complex skills on foundation of elemental skills Elemental skills may not require Airsoft equipment Skills must be possible to perform Keep realistic shots fired, out of action, still in action Winning is preferable, in general, to losing Except to drill home a failure mode must emphasize that it was a failure drillTe3Oe3O& What to Teach$<Not just shooting Observation Judgments Cover Verbalization Distance management Force level selection & transition including no force and retreats Proficiency('(Developing a Simulation to Teach a Skill))$Specify the skill to be learned or the desired behavior, and assign a reference number to it. If the desired behavior or skill to be learned requires multiple elemental skills to be first mastered, insure that this has first been done. Describe briefly and diagram the simulation Script the simulation to the appropriate degree (how can the scenario go sideways?) Prepare the role players Brief the student(s) Insure area safety Run the simulation Evaluate/de-brief the student " Z" Z/ "4">T"(Hints  POs as role players  pros and cons Not a game of paintball Staging area next to entry point Store training weapons Put participants on deck Video taping good, but potential liability put into policy DOCUMENT all training  see appendix for sample form Hot/cold training area Clear training weapons after simulation over?p] 0  . ]0.)Technique Validation?  = Can we use simulations to validate the techniques we teach?>!>>'What s Next   ,Test Running simulations  ` ̙33` ` ff3333f` 333MMM` f` f` 3>?" dd@(|?" dd@  " @ ` n?" dd@   @@``PR    @ ` ` p>> W(    6d     T Click to edit Master title style! !  0     RClick to edit Master text styles Second level Third level Fourth level Fifth level!     S   6  ^ Foil *& Z   C hANC:\WORK\AirSoft Trainer\MLEFI Logo.jpg"   0 "m IMassachusetts Law Enforcement Firearms Instructors & Armorers Association J(2J ̙  0 "0P L 2002-2005 Ralph Mroz(2 H  0޽h ? ̙33 $Blank Presentationr0 2*Pd(  d d 0D8 P    >*  d 0t     @* d d c $ ?   d 0@  @  RClick to edit Master text styles Second level Third level Fourth level Fifth level!     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OBJECTIVE: Instructors will be able to maintain a safe training environment while conducting f-o-f simulations It is not a instructor development course, nor a scenario development course, although theses subjects are touched upon. Ken Murray s Training at the Speed of Life is a good resource here" ""d"""", AssumptionsThis course is designed for current firearms instructors. All potential instructors are familiar with current firearms and use of force doctrine and binding court decisions. All potential instructors are familiar with the concept of the force continuum and the proper place of firearms within it. The content and conduct of f-o-f simulations will be in line with agency use of force policy. ,9"P?(Three Levels of Training $Static: Range drills Weapons fundamentals Dynamic: Video simulators Decision making Interactive: Role-playing simulations Performance evaluationZZZZ&ZZ$ $ &$  Definitions: Simulation Types"$fSimulation refers to a realistic role-played enactment of potentially real situations. Force need not be involved. Force-on-force simulations are those requiring the use of some level of potential force by at least one role player. Integrated use of force simulations require at least one transition between force levels on the part of the officer student. bf k gf Reasons For Simulations$To improve officer performance To increase officer safety To increase public safety To induce training that is a realistic as possible To inoculate against the effects of stress and body alarm reaction To assess officer behavior in realistic situations To remediate such behavior as necessary To uncover areas of training deficiency--officer s and departments To reinforce good tactics To develop and assess judgmental skills To develop and test new tactics Morale and confidence builderLegal Dictates for Simulations$2Graham v. Connor 109 S.Ct. 1865 (1989) Board of County Commissioners of Bryon County, Oklahoma v. Brown, 520 U.S. 397, (1997) Oklahoma v. Tuttle 471 U.S. 808 (1985) City of Canton v. Harris, 489 U.S. 378 (1989) Tennessee v. Garner, 471 U.S. 1 (1985) Walker v. City of New York 974 F.2nd 292 (2nd Cir. 1992) Brown v. Gray, 227 F.3rd 1278 (10 Cir 2000) Allen v. Muskogee 119 F.3rd, 837 (10 Cir. 1997) Leatherman v. Tarrant County Narcotics and Intelligence and Coordination Unit, 113 S.Ct. 1160 (1993) Zuchel v. City and County of Denver, 997 F.2nd 730 (10 Cir. 1993) Popow v. City of Margate, 476 F.Supp. 1237 (D.N.J. 1979) Cornfield v. Consolidated High School District No. 230, 991 F.2nd 1316 (1993) Votour v. Vitale, 761 F.2nd 812 (1  !"#$%&'()*+,-./0123456789:;<=>?@ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ[\]^_`abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz{|}~      !"#$%&'()*+,-./0123456789:;<=>?@ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ[\]^_`abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz{|}~      !"#$%&'()*+,-./0123456789:;<=>?@ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ[\]^_`abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz{}~Root EntrydO)j @ Pictures,Current User#>SummaryInformation(|(RPowerPoint Document(6DocumentSummaryInformation8New RomanA hPv 0h( 0" DComic Sans MSnA hPv 0h( 0B0DOldEnglishMSnA hPv 0h( 0"@DWingdingsMSnA hPv 0h( 0 ` .  @n?" dd@  @@`` r:  #*-3456#89!    8': "$%,+./&1?$/R$2I)UQgtّ+ /R$>%m5By  /c $p̙33f3@ g4BdBdv 0\"ppp@ <4BdBd` 0lB pթʚ;2Nʚ;<4!d!d{ 0t<4dddd{ 0t$___PPT9/ 0($ 5L3,4X(? %O =$Force-on-Force Simulation Instructor%%V3.0 Objectives $This course is about SAFETY. OBJECTIVE: Instructors will be able to maintain a safe training environment while conducting f-o-f simulations It is not a instructor development course, nor a scenario development course, although theses subjects are touched upon. Ken Murray s Training at the Speed of Life is a good resource here" ""d"""", AssumptionsThis course is designed for current firearms instructors. All potential instructors are familiar with current firearms and use of force doctrine and binding court decisions. All potential instructors are familiar with the concept of the force continuum and the proper place of firearms within it. The content and conduct of f-o-f simulations will be in line with agency use of force policy. ,9"P?(Three Levels of Training $Static: Range drills Weapons fundamentals Dynamic: Video simulators Decision making Interactive: Role-playing simulations Performance evaluationZZZZ&ZZ$ $ &$  Definitions: Simulation Types"$fSimulation refers to a realistic role-played enactment of potentially real situations. Force need not be involved. Force-on-force simulations are those requiring the use of some level of potential force by at least one role player. Integrated use of force simulations require at least one transition between force levels on the part of the officer student. bf k gf Reasons For Simulations$To improve officer performance To increase officer safety To increase public safety To induce training that is a realistic as possible To inoculate against the effects of stress and body alarm reaction To assess officer behavior in realistic situations To remediate such behavior as necessary To uncover areas of training deficiency--officer s and departments To reinforce good tactics To develop and assess judgmental skills To develop and test new tactics Morale and confidence builderLegal Dictates for Simulations$2Graham v. Connor 109 S.Ct. 1865 (1989) Board of County Commissioners of Bryon County, Oklahoma v. Brown, 520 U.S. 397, (1997) Oklahoma v. Tuttle 471 U.S. 808 (1985) City of Canton v. Harris, 489 U.S. 378 (1989) Tennessee v. Garner, 471 U.S. 1 (1985) Walker v. City of New York 974 F.2nd 292 (2nd Cir. 1992) Brown v. Gray, 227 F.3rd 1278 (10 Cir 2000) Allen v. Muskogee 119 F.3rd, 837 (10 Cir. 1997) Leatherman v. Tarrant County Narcotics and Intelligence and Coordination Unit, 113 S.Ct. 1160 (1993) Zuchel v. City and County of Denver, 997 F.2nd 730 (10 Cir. 1993) Popow v. City of Margate, 476 F.Supp. 1237 (D.N.J. 1979) Cornfield v. Consolidated High School District No. 230, 991 F.2nd 1316 (1993) Votour v. Vitale, 761 F.2nd 812 (1985) Davis v. Mason County State standards insufficient!Z"*"*""*-"*"*"*&"* "Message From the Courts$More frequent training Moving targets Reduced Light Judgmental training Use of cover Realistic environments Policy reinforcement Force level integration and transitions Relevance to assignments: patrol, undercover, investigations, undercover, etc.8Z""9# Good QuestionQUESTION: Have there been any court cases that have vindicated simulation training? ANSWER: Cases in which the police have a strong case are seldom appealed to the levels that make case law.& Kl/Simulation Technologies@Most Realistic Paintball Simunitions FX and similar Airmunitions Airsoft Quite Practical Dry real guns  but not recommended Blue guns Water pistols Cap guns^=Ev=E0 Paintball v .40 - .68 caliber balls typical Up to 300 hundred fps Compressed CO2 and N2 powered Long guns and handguns available One-several hundred dollars Non-restricted&" 1!Paintball Strengths / Weaknesses"" "Strengths Inexpensive Guns and gear easy to find Pain compliance Marking Weaknesses Not like real guns Can t use standard gear  holsters, etc Un-natural physical orientation necessary MarkingT ? m ? m2Simunitions FX and SimilartFires real rounds with paint filled bullet Approx. 400 fps Uses real but modified guns Restricted to LE and military31Simunitions FX & Similar Strengths / WeaknessespStrengths Actual weapons can use real gear Marking Pain compliance Weaknesses Actual weapons live fire potential Expensive both guns and rounds Guns must be continually cleaned MarkingL 9 k 9 kAirsoft$1:1 replicas 6mm BBs ABS or starch 0.12g - 0.5g 200-450 fps Hop-Up = underspin Spring guns (Green) Gas guns CO2 guns AEGs (Automatic Electric Guns) Note: upgrades and alterations potentially undesirableZZ7Z0 2 \-Airsoft Demonstration9 Demonstration and hand-on session with Airsoft weapons,88Airsoft Strengths$DLittle injury potential, even at close quarters Inexpensive True replica guns available  broad selection - normal equipment, techniques and tactics can be used Non-regulated devices Non Marking - can use actual deployment environments for training  buildings, cruisers, etc. No set-up time No specialized training required on part of participants Little protective equipment necessary  can use normal clothing, etc.@)Airsoft Weaknesses$(Non-marking? We don t think so Too little pain? Depends on protection Fragile Can t drop guns or magazines Handguns less reliable than we d preferA*A Word on BlanksActual blank guns are dangerous You re using real guns The gas/projectiles can cause injury SafeShot or similar You re using real guns Nothing escapes the gun so safer But all they do is make noise! Worth the risk and expense? Why not use dummy guns? Z<ZZ8ZZ4Z <84  5The Law of Large NumbersAny activity performed tens of thousands of times a year will result in every possible outcome Therefore we must strive for perfection, not just  safe enough & because 0.01% of ten thousand is someone s life! Currently about 2 officers lost per year in training Water leakage analogy No leakage is acceptable in a house Any leakage causes damage*>>B+Fatality Example0SWAT Exercise Real weapons used in training Loaded rifle introduced into area Officer was sent back to station to obtain it Rifle then  dry fired at PON@.@.7!Fatality ExampleTactical training Real weapons used in training Team loaded in van after lunch Member grabs mag from van after having trouble with his PO shot with live round from the magazine during exercise&6 Fatality ExampleFederal SpecOps Team Using MILES LASER system Live mag inserted into rifle Pre-exercise inspection had failed to find the live mag Team member killed&8"Fatality ExampleCanada Real weapons used in training Officer left training area to get camera from car Officer reloaded pistol since he was going into a public area He failed to clear when re-entering training area&;$Common Killing ThemesSafety protocol was insufficient  by definition People not searched in initially People leave training area and return without being search Real weapons used in training Why?????? Unloaded real guns = dummy guns Reserve real weapons for marksmanship training Dummy and non-lethal projectile training guns for movement and tactics training4" ZZ=%$In Grandpa's Day& .$In Grandpa's day, range safety was minimal Today, we live and breathe the 4 firearms safety rules Today, simulation safety is minimal We must learn to be paranoid about  safety leakages It s a mindset/cultural changeK5TA Life-Saving Safety Protocol Two CriteriaNMust be completely safe Zero% safety leakage by design Must be practical cannot be so cumbersome, time-consuming, or resource intensive that it is impractical to implement Ballistic vest comfort / usage analogy No inordinate  rings of safety Uses reasonable number of people Takes little time " ZZu" ZzZZ uz  C-Two Kinds of Danger$5From Projectiles From live weapons in training area 6#6 +"Managing Airsoft Projectile Hazard##$^All role players (minimum) Goggles Neck protection Face protection Women: vest or other breast protection All participants (minimum) Goggles Optional but recommended Groin protection Gloves strongly recommended Long pants/shirt Ear protection strongly recommended Mouth guard Scalp protection  ball capZOZZZZZO  D.9Managing Simunitions FX and Paintball Projectiles Hazard::$All participants (minimum) Eye protection Neck protection Face protection Women: vest or breast protection Groin protection Gloves Long pants/shirt Ear protection Mouth guard Scalp protection  ball cap* .Making Simulation Area Safe From Live Weapons//$Physically separate Taped off if no hard physical boundary Difficult with expanded or mobile simulations But no excuse for not doing it! ONE entry point X exit points Free from non-participants except for approved observersU 9U     9  *E/Sanitizing Chamber$Here weapons are removed, unloaded if necessary, and stored Bags/gear stored here, too Good idea to have a ballistic barrier for unloading Must be outside of the simulation area Must be locked or guarded at all timesF0 The Arsenal $Here training weapons are distributed Can be just outside the simulation area, put preferable to have it inside the area Only Instructor, AIs or SOs can distribute training weaponsL6Weapons ConsiderationsALL simulated weapons must be identifiable in hand and in holster Color band around grip and foregun Color coding? If you have multiple types of confusable training weapons All live-weapon four safety rules apply Training guns can cause injuries!TBl("B l( "<&Extended/Multiple Sites$jQuestion: What about multiple sites like sniper s nests? Answer: Make multiple sterile simulation areas, with appropriate safety officers (possibly in radio comm with Instructor.)03u4"Two People Responsible for Safety##$l Instructor Safety Officer(s)  Instructor designated> *6$ .Who s Also Responsible?$.EVERYONE is responsible All participants are required to call attention to safety violations Danger of  cool factor Brings out the child in everyone E! ' !   " fInstructor s Responsibilities  Prior to Simulation44$<Designing or approving the simulation Critical  NO un-aware participants in area! Designing the documentation Scripts for role players Training documentation Student paperwork Designing or approving the simulation area(s) Designing or approving the sanitizing chamber and the arsenal ~&-Bm&-BmH2vInstructor s Responsibilities  Prior to Simulation  con t<<$Designating SOs and AIs Getting all student paperwork filled out Making sure all pre-existing injuries are worked around Put the onus on the student to report a priori Mark student & brief role players about injury Align training weapons with protective equipmentBy^2y^2,7  G1dInstructor s Responsibilities  During Simulation"32$ "Starting the simulation in action Stopping the action for safety or remediation Declaring the simulation over Keeping track of which projectiles hit whom Overall safety of the participants and bystanders Student coaching during the simulation Student de-briefing afterwardsHI&&*&>Z| .>SO s Responsibilities  One Job $(At least one SO designated NOT the Instructor One person cannot maintain control of all functions SO has NO other responsibilities other than safetyD.43. 43 hI3DSO s Responsibilities  Clear Area##$Initial clear of area of ALL weapons and ammunition with 2-step protocol: Visual clear of the area Interrogative clear of the area Should also clear of other dangers  glass, sharp objects, tripping hazards, etc.`J Z9" ZR ZJ 9R ,W SJ4VSO s Responsibilities  Clear Participants,,$(Inspection of EVERY person coming into area with 3-step protocol Visual search of person Physical search of person Areas likely to contain weapons Cross-gender OK with discretion and search sticks Wanding has problems Interrogation of person Students can also check each other"ZZ2 ZgZ Z# Z"2g  #>H h$  8SO s Responsibilities - More$SO decisions FINAL  Instructor cannot over-rule If SO loses continuous control of area, must clear area and start from scratchD1OnM7Identification$BSOs, AIs and Instructor visually identifiable  bright cap or vest Non-participants (approved observers) can be color-coded as out of play with vest, cap, etc. ,T! Other Safety Considerations$$At least one first responder kit on site All injuries sustained must be reported to Instructor 2nd safety violation = expulsion Horseplay is a violation All weapons present must be inert: OC, baton, pistol, non-lethal, etc. Dislodged protective equipment mandates stopping the action All weapons use under the eye of the Instructor  no student freelancingXZZZ)TN8Taser ConsiderationsZNeed to allow live Taser or dummy Taser is Taser is carried Live Taser can have either no cartridges or training cartridges  SO must search appropriately Training cartridges mandate a Taser training suit for role players Can get expensive Best bet is maybe no cartridges Train Taser firing separatelyTZZ ZZ H `p#*Simulations Two Types$s Teach a skill or desired behavior Murray: Experiential Learning See what happens Murray: Experimental Learning% "    ,$$To See What Happens$wSet it up Script appropriately Let it unfold Useful to: Explore a situation - research As a test of skills - assessmentH-"  @- @%"To Teach a Skill/Desired Behavior *#$"$$Requires careful thought and preparation Must build complex skills on foundation of elemental skills Elemental skills may not require Airsoft equipment Skills must be possible to perform Keep realistic shots fired, out of action, still in ac    !"#$%&'()*+,-./0123456789:;<=>?@ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ[\]^_`abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz{|}~tion Winning is preferable, in general, to losing Except to drill home a failure mode must emphasize that it was a failure drillTe3Oe3O& What to Teach$<Not just shooting Observation Judgments Cover Verbalization Distance management Force level selection & transition including no force and retreats Proficiency('(Developing a Simulation to Teach a Skill))$Specify the skill to be learned or the desired behavior, and assign a reference number to it. If the desired behavior or skill to be learned requires multiple elemental skills to be first mastered, insure that this has first been done. Describe briefly and diagram the simulation Script the simulation to the appropriate degree (how can the scenario go sideways?) Prepare the role players Brief the student(s) Insure area safety Run the simulation Evaluate/de-brief the student " Z" Z/ "4">T"(Hints  POs as role players  pros and cons Not a game of paintball Staging area next to entry point Store training weapons Put participants on deck Video taping good, but potential liability put into policy DOCUMENT all training  see appendix for sample form Hot/cold training area Clear training weapons after simulation over?p] 0  . ]0.)Technique Validation?  = Can we use simulations to validate the techniques we teach?>!>>'What s Next   ,Test Running simulations  0$(  r  S a   r  S xb  H  0޽h ? ̙33  $(  r  S    r  S @  H  0޽h ? ̙33   $(  r  S    r  S Tޫ@  H  0޽h ? ̙33   $(  r  S  |  | r  S ȉ| | H  0޽h ? ̙33  0$(  r  S    r  S $  H  0޽h ? ̙33r,F !ژ#M ƚ " Nt( :*F/ 0|DTimes New RomanA hPv 0h( 0DArialNew RomanA hPv 0h( 0" DComic S  !"$՜.+,0    OOn-screen Show -s69 ?Times New RomanArialComic Sans MS OldEnglish WingdingsBlank Presentation%Force-on-Force Simulation Instructor Objectives AssumptionsThree Levels of Training Definitions: Simulation TypesReasons For SimulationsLegal Dictates for SimulationsMessage From the CourtsGood QuestionSimulation Technologies Paintball"Paintball Strengths / WeaknessesSimunitions FX and Similar2Simunitions FX & Similar Strengths / WeaknessesAirsoftAirsoft DemonstrationAirsoft StrengthsAirsoft WeaknessesA Word on BlanksThe Law of Large NumbersFatality ExampleFatality ExampleFatality ExampleFatality ExampleCommon Killing ThemesIn Grandpa's Day.+A Life-Saving Safety ProtocolTwo CriteriaTwo Kinds of Danger#Managing Airsoft Projectile Hazard:Managing Simunitions FX and Paintball Projectiles Hazard/Making Simulation Area Safe From Live WeaponsSanitizing Chamber The ArsenalWeapons ConsiderationsExtended/Multiple Sites#Two People Responsible for SafetyWhos Also Responsible?4Instructors Responsibilities Prior to Simulation<Instructors Responsibilities Prior to Simulation cont3Instructors Responsibilities During Simulation SOs Responsibilities One Job#SOs Responsibilities Clear Area,SOs Responsibilities Clear ParticipantsSOs Responsibilities - MoreIdentificationOther Safety ConsiderationsTaser ConsiderationsSimulationsTwo TypesTo See What Happens#To Teach a Skill/Desired Behavior ;Developing a Simulation to Teach a Skill/Elicit a BehaviorWhat to TeachSimulation HintsSimulation Hints contSimulation Hints cont When to end Whats Next  Fonts UsedDesign Template"_6  Ralph MrozRalph Mroz Slide Titles9985) Davis v. Mason County State standards insufficient!Z"*"*""*-"*"*"*&"* "Message From the Courts$More frequent training Moving targets Reduced Light Judgmental training Use of cover Realistic environments Policy reinforcement Force level integration and transitions Relevance to assignments: patrol, undercover, investigations, undercover, etc.8Z""9# Good QuestionQUESTION: Have there been any court cases that have vindicated simulation training? ANSWER: Cases in which the police have a strong case are seldom appealed to the levels that make case law.& Kl/Simulation Technologies@Most Realistic Paintball Simunitions FX and similar Airmunitions Airsoft Quite Practical Dry real guns  but not recommended Blue guns Water pistols Cap guns^=Ev=E0 Paintball v .40 - .68 caliber balls typical Up to 300 hundred fps Compressed CO2 and N2 powered Long guns and handguns available One-several hundred dollars Non-restricted&" 1!Paintball Strengths / Weaknesses"" "Strengths Inexpensive Guns and gear easy to find Pain compliance Marking Weaknesses Not like real guns Can t use standard gear  holsters, etc Un-natural physical orientation necessary MarkingT ? m ? m2Simunitions FX and SimilartFires real rounds with paint filled bullet Approx. 400 fps Uses real but modified guns Restricted to LE and military31Simunitions FX & Similar Strengths / WeaknessespStrengths Actual weapons can use real gear Marking Pain compliance Weaknesses Actual weapons live fire potential Expensive both guns and rounds Guns must be continually cleaned MarkingL 9 k 9 kAirsoft$1:1 replicas 6mm BBs ABS or starch 0.12g - 0.5g 200-450 fps Hop-Up = underspin Spring guns (Green) Gas guns CO2 guns AEGs (Automatic Electric Guns) Note: upgrades and alterations potentially undesirableZZ7Z0 2 \-Airsoft Demonstration9 Demonstration and hand-on session with Airsoft weapons,88Airsoft Strengths$DLittle injury potential, even at close quarters Inexpensive True replica guns available  broad selection - normal equipment, techniques and tactics can be used Non-regulated devices Non Marking - can use actual deployment environments for training  buildings, cruisers, etc. No set-up time No specialized training required on part of participants Little protective equipment necessary  can use normal clothing, etc.@)Airsoft Weaknesses$(Non-marking? We don t think so Too little pain? Depends on protection Fragile Can t drop guns or magazines Handguns less reliable than we d preferA*A Word on BlanksActual blank guns are dangerous You re using real guns The gas/projectiles can cause injury SafeShot or similar You re using real guns Nothing escapes the gun so safer But all they do is make noise! Worth the risk and expense? Why not use dummy guns? Z<ZZ8ZZ4Z <84  5The Law of Large NumbersAny activity performed tens of thousands of times a year will result in every possible outcome Therefore we must strive for perfection, not just  safe enough & because 0.01% of ten thousand is someone s life! Currently about 2 officers lost per year in training Water leakage analogy No leakage is acceptable in a house Any leakage causes damage*>>B+Fatality Example0SWAT Exercise Real weapons used in training Loaded rifle introduced into area Officer was sent back to station to obtain it Rifle then  dry fired at PON@.@.7!Fatality ExampleTactical training Real weapons used in training Team loaded in van after lunch Member grabs mag from van after having trouble with his PO shot with live round from the magazine during exercise&6 Fatality ExampleFederal SpecOps Team Using MILES LASER system Live mag inserted into rifle Pre-exercise inspection had failed to find the live mag Team member killed&8"Fatality ExampleCanada Real weapons used in training Officer left training area to get camera from car Officer reloaded pistol since he was going into a public area He failed to clear when re-entering training area&;$Common Killing ThemesSafety protocol was insufficient  by definition People not searched in initially People leave training area and return without being search Real weapons used in training Why?????? Unloaded real guns = dummy guns Reserve real weapons for marksmanship training Dummy and non-lethal projectile training guns for movement and tactics training4" ZZ=%$In Grandpa's Day& .$In Grandpa's day, range safety was minimal Today, we live and breathe the 4 firearms safety rules Today, simulation safety is minimal We must learn to be paranoid about  safety leakages It s a mindset/cultural changeK5TA Life-Saving Safety Protocol Two CriteriaNMust be completely safe Zero% safety leakage by design Must be practical cannot be so cumbersome, time-consuming, or resource intensive that it is impractical to implement Ballistic vest comfort / usage analogy No inordinate  rings of safety Uses reasonable number of people Takes little time " ZZu" ZzZZ uz  C-Two Kinds of Danger$5From Projectiles From live weapons in training area 6#6 +"Managing Airsoft Projectile Hazard##$^All role players (minimum) Goggles Neck protection Face protection Women: vest or other breast protection All participants (minimum) Goggles Optional but recommended Groin protection Gloves strongly recommended Long pants/shirt Ear protection strongly recommended Mouth guard Scalp protection  ball capZOZZZZZO  D.9Managing Simunitions FX and Paintball Projectiles Hazard::$All participants (minimum) Eye protection Neck protection Face protection Women: vest or breast protection Groin protection Gloves Long pants/shirt Ear protection Mouth guard Scalp protection  ball cap* .Making Simulation Area Safe From Live Weapons//$Physically separate Taped off if no hard physical boundary Difficult with expanded or mobile simulations But no excuse for not doing it! ONE entry point X exit points Free from non-participants except for approved observersU 9U     9  *E/Sanitizing Chamber$Here weapons are removed, unloaded if necessary, and stored Bags/gear stored here, too Good idea to have a ballistic barrier for unloading Must be outside of the simulation area Must be locked or guarded at all timesF0 The Arsenal $Here training weapons are distributed Can be just outside the simulation area, put preferable to have it inside the area Only Instructor, AIs or SOs can distribute training weaponsL6Weapons ConsiderationsALL simulated weapons must be identifiable in hand and in holster Color band around grip and foregun Color coding? If you have multiple types of confusable training weapons All live-weapon four safety rules apply Training guns can cause injuries!TBl("B l( "<&Extended/Multiple Sites$jQuestion: What about multiple sites like sniper s nests? Answer: Make multiple sterile simulation areas, with appropriate safety officers (possibly in radio comm with Instructor.)03u4"Two People Responsible for Safety##$l Instructor Safety Officer(s)  Instructor designated> *6$ .Who s Also Responsible?$.EVERYONE is responsible All participants are required to call attention to safety violations Danger of  cool factor Brings out the child in everyone E! ' !   " fInstructor s Responsibilities  Prior to Simulation44$<Designing or approving the simulation Critical  NO un-aware participants in area! Designing the documentation Scripts for role players Training documentation Student paperwork Designing or approving the simulation area(s) Designing or approving the sanitizing chamber and the arsenal ~&-Bm&-BmH2vInstructor s Responsibilities  Prior to Simulation  con t<<$Designating SOs and AIs Getting all student paperwork filled out Making sure all pre-existing injuries are worked around Put the onus on the student to report a priori Mark student & brief role players about injury Align training weapons with protective equipmentBy^2y^2,7  G1dInstructor s Responsibilities  During Simulation"32$ "Starting the simulation in action Stopping the action for safety or remediation Declaring the simulation over Keeping track of which projectiles hit whom Overall safety of the participants and bystanders Student coaching during the simulation Student de-briefing afterwardsHI&&*&>Z| .>SO s Responsibilities  One Job $(At least one SO designated NOT the Instructor One person cannot maintain control of all functions SO has NO other responsibilities other than safetyD.43. 43 hI3DSO s Responsibilities  Clear Area##$Initial clear of area of ALL weapons and ammunition with 2-step protocol: Visual clear of the area Interrogative clear of the area Should also clear of other dangers  glass, sharp objects, tripping hazards, etc.`J Z9" ZR ZJ 9R ,W SJ4VSO s Responsibilities  Clear Participants,,$(Inspection of EVERY person coming into area with 3-step protocol Visual search of person Physical search of person Areas likely to contain weapons Cross-gender OK with discretion and search sticks Wanding has problems Interrogation of person Students can also check each other"ZZ2 ZgZ Z# Z"2g  #>H h$  8SO s Responsibilities - More$SO decisions FINAL  Instructor cannot over-rule If SO loses continuous control of area, must clear area and start from scratchD1OnM7Identification$BSOs, AIs and Instructor visually identifiable  bright cap or vest Non-participants (approved observers) can be color-coded as out of play with vest, cap, etc. ,T! Other Safety Considerations$$At least one first responder kit on site All injuries sustained must be reported to Instructor 2nd safety violation = expulsion Horseplay is a violation All weapons present must be inert: OC, baton, pistol, non-lethal, etc. Dislodged protective equipment mandates stopping the action All weapons use under the eye of the Instructor  no student freelancingXZZZ)TN8Taser ConsiderationsZNeed to allow live Taser or dummy Taser is Taser is carried Live Taser can have either no cartridges or training cartridges  SO must search appropriately Training cartridges mandate a Taser training suit for role players Can get expensive Best bet is maybe no cartridges Train Taser firing separatelyTZZ ZZ H `p#*Simulations Two Types$r Teach a skill or desired behavior Murray: Experiential Learning See what happens Murray: Experimental Learning$ "    ,#$To See What Happens$wSet it up Script appropriately Let it unfold Useful to: Explore a situation - research As a test of skills - assessmentH-"  @- @%"To Teach a Skill/Desired Behavior *#$"$$Requires careful thought and preparation Must build complex skills on foundation of elemental skills Elemental skills may not require Airsoft equipment Skills must be possible to perform Keep realistic shots fired, out of action, still in action Winning is preferable, in general, to losing Except to drill home a failure mode must emphasize that it was a failure drillTe3Oe3O& What to Teach$<Not just shooting Observation Judgments Cover Verbalization Distance management Force level selection & transition including no force and retreats Proficiency('(Developing a Simulation to Teach a Skill))$Specify the skill to be learned or the desired behavior, and assign a reference number to it. If the desired behavior or skill to be learned requires multiple elemental skills to be first mastered, insure that this has first been done. Describe briefly and diagram the simulation Script the simulation to the appropriate degree (how can the scenario go sideways?) Prepare the role players Brief the student(s) Insure area safety Run the simulation Evaluate/de-brief the student " Z" Z/ "4">T"(Hints  POs as role players  pros and cons Not a game of paintball Staging area next to entry point Store training weapons Put participants on deck Video taping good, but potential liability put into policy DOCUMENT all training  see appendix for sample form Hot/cold training area Clear training weapons after simulation over?p] 0  . ]0.)Technique Validation?  = Can we use simulations to validate the techniques we teach?>!>>'What s Next   ,Test Running simulations  0$(  r  S    r  S $   H  0޽h ? ̙33r#* Ҟ,Nt( :*F/ 0|DTimes New RomanA hPv 0h( 0DArialNew RomanA hPv 0h( 0" DComic Sans MSnA hPv 0h( 0B0DOldEnglishMSnA hPv 0h( 0"@DWingdingsMSnA hPv 0h( 0 ` .  @n?" dd@  @@`` r:  #*-3456#89!    8': "$%,+./&1?$/R$2I)UQgtّ+ /R$>%m5By  /c $p̙33f3@ g4BdBdv 0\"ppp@ <4BdBd` 0lB pթʚ;2Nʚ;<4!d!d{ 0t<4dddd{ 0t___PPT9/ 0($ 5L3,4X? %O =$Force-on-Force Simulation Instructor%%V3.0 Objectives $This course is about SAFETY. OBJECTIVE: Instructors will be able to maintain a safe training environment while conducting f-o-f simulations It is not a instructor development course, nor a scenario development course, although theses subjects are touched upon. Ken Murray s Training at the Speed of Life is a good resource here" ""d"""", AssumptionsThis course is designed for current firearms instructors. All potential instructors are familiar with current firearms and use of force doctrine and binding court decisions. All potential instructors are familiar with the concept of the force continuum and the proper place of firearms within it. The content and conduct of f-o-f simulations will be in line with agency use of force policy. ,9"P?(Three Levels of Training $Static: Range drills Weapons fundamentals Dynamic: Video simulators Decision making Interactive: Role-playing simulations Performance evaluationZZZZ&ZZ$ $ &$  Definitions: Simulation Types"$fSimulation refers to a realistic role-played enactment of potentially real situations. Force need not be involved. Force-on-force simulations are those requiring the use of some level of potential force by at least one role player. Integrated use of force simulations require at least one transition between force levels on the part of the officer student. bf k gf Reasons For Simulations$To improve officer performance To increase officer safety To increase public safety To induce training that is a realistic as possible To inoculate against the effects of stress and body alarm reaction To assess officer behavior in realistic situations To remediate such behavior as necessary To uncover areas of training deficiency--officer s and departments To reinforce good tactics To develop and assess judgmental skills To develop and test new tactics Morale and confidence builderLegal Dictates for Simulations$2Graham v. Connor 109 S.Ct. 1865 (1989) Board of County Commissioners of Bryon County, Oklahoma v. Brown, 520 U.S. 397, (1997) Oklahoma v. Tuttle 471 U.S. 808 (1985) City of Canton v. Harris, 489 U.S. 378 (1989) Tennessee v. Garner, 471 U.S. 1 (1985) Walker v. City of New York 974 F.2nd 292 (2nd Cir. 1992) Brown v. Gray, 227 F.3rd 1278 (10 Cir 2000) Allen v. Muskogee 119 F.3rd, 837 (10 Cir. 1997) Leatherman v. Tarrant County Narcotics and Intelligence and Coordination Unit, 113 S.Ct. 1160 (1993) Zuchel v. City and County of Denver, 997 F.2nd 730 (10 Cir. 1993) Popow v. City of Margate, 476 F.Supp. 1237 (D.N.J. 1979) Cornfield v. Consolidated High School District No. 230, 991 F.2nd 1316 (1993) Votour v. Vitale, 761 F.2nd 812 (1985) Davis v. Mason County State standards insufficient!Z"*"*""*-"*"*"*&"* "Message From the Courts$More frequent training Moving targets Reduced Light Judgmental training Use of cover Realistic environments Policy reinforcement Force level integration and transitions Relevance to assignments: patrol, undercover, investigations, undercover, etc.8Z""9# Good QuestionQUESTION: Have there been any court cases that have vindicated simulation training? ANSWER: Cases in which the police have a strong case are seldom appealed to the levels that make case law.& Kl/Simulation Technologies@Most Realistic Paintball Simunitions FX and similar Airmunitions Airsoft Quite Practical Dry real guns  but not recommended Blue guns Water pistols Cap guns^=Ev=E0 Paintball v .40 - .68 caliber balls typical Up to 300 hundred fps Compressed CO2 and N2 powered Long guns and handguns available One-several hundred dollars Non-restricted&" 1!Paintball Strengths / Weaknesses"" "Strengths Inexpensive Guns and gear easy to find Pain compliance Marking Weaknesses Not like real guns Can t use standard gear  holsters, etc Un-natural physical orientation necessary MarkingT ? m ? m2Simunitions FX and SimilartFires real rounds with paint filled bullet Approx. 400 fps Uses real but modified guns Restricted to LE and military31Simunitions FX & Similar Strengths / WeaknessespStrengths Actual weapons can use real gear Marking Pain compliance Weaknesses Actual weapons live fire potential Expensive both guns and rounds Guns must be continually cleaned MarkingL 9 k 9 kAirsoft$1:1 replicas 6mm BBs ABS or starch 0.12g - 0.5g 200-450 fps Hop-Up = underspin Spring guns (Green) Gas guns CO2 guns AEGs (Automatic Electric Guns) Note: upgrades and alterations potentially undesirableZZ7Z0 2 \-Airsoft Demonstration9 Demonstration and hand-on session with Airsoft weapons,88Airsoft Strengths$DLittle injury potential, even at close quarters Inexpensive True replica guns available  broad selection - normal equipment, techniques and tactics can be used Non-regulated devices Non Marking - can use actual deployment environments for training  buildings, cruisers, etc. No set-up time No specialized training required on part of participants Little protective equipment necessary  can use normal clothing, etc.@)Airsoft Weaknesses$(Non-marking? We don t think so Too little pain? Depends on protection Fragile Can t drop guns or magazines Handguns less reliable than we d preferA*A Word on BlanksActual blank guns are dangerous You re using real guns The gas/projectiles can cause injury SafeShot or similar You re using real guns Nothing escapes the gun so safer But all they do is make noise! Worth the risk and expense? Why not use dummy guns? Z<ZZ8ZZ4Z <84  5The Law of Large NumbersAny activity performed tens of thousands of times a year will result in every possible outcome Therefore we must strive for perfection, not just  safe enough & because 0.01% of ten thousand is someone s life! Currently about 2 officers lost per year in training Water leakage analogy No leakage is acceptable in a house Any leakage causes damage*>>B+Fatality Example0SWAT Exercise Real weapons used in training Loaded rifle introduced into area Officer was sent back to station to obtain it Rifle then  dry fired at PON@.@.7!Fatality ExampleTactical training Real weapons used in training Team loaded in van after lunch Member grabs mag from van after having trouble with his PO shot with live round from the magazine during exercise&6 Fatality ExampleFederal SpecOps Team Using MILES LASER system Live mag inserted into rifle Pre-exercise inspection had failed to find the live mag Team member killed&8"Fatality ExampleCanada Real weapons used in training Officer left training area to get camera from car Officer reloaded pistol since he was going into a public area He failed to clear when re-entering training area&;$Common Killing ThemesSafety protocol was insufficient  by definition People not searched in initially People leave training area and return without being search Real weapons used in training Why?????? Unloaded real guns = dummy guns Reserve real weapons for marksmanship training Dummy and non-lethal projectile training guns for movement and tactics training4" ZZ=%$In Grandpa's Day& .$In Grandpa's day, range safety was minimal Today, we live and breathe the 4 firearms safety rules Today, simulation safety is minimal We must learn to be paranoid about  safety leakages It s a mindset/cultural changeK5TA Life-Saving Safety Protocol Two CriteriaNMust be completely safe Zero% safety leakage by design Must be practical cannot be so cumbersome, time-consuming, or resource intensive that it is impractical to implement Ballistic vest comfort / usage analogy No inordinate  rings of safety Uses reasonable number of people Takes little time " ZZu" ZzZZ uz  C-Two Kinds of Danger$5From Projectiles From live weapons in training area 6#6 +"Managing Airsoft Projectile Hazard##$^All role players (minimum) Goggles Neck protection Face protection Women: vest or other breast protection All participants (minimum) Goggles Optional but recommended Groin protection Gloves strongly recommended Long pants/shirt Ear protection strongly recommended Mouth guard Scalp protection  ball capZOZZZZZO  D.9Managing Simunitions FX and Paintball Projectiles Hazard::$All participants (minimum) Eye protection Neck protection Face protection Women: vest or breast protection Groin protection Gloves Long pants/shirt Ear protection Mouth guard Scalp protection  ball cap* .Making Simulation Area Safe From Live Weapons//$Physically separate Taped off if no hard physical boundary Difficult with expanded or mobile simulations But no excuse for not doing it! ONE entry point X exit points Free from non-participants except for approved observersU 9U     9  *E/Sanitizing Chamber$Here weapons are removed, unloaded if necessary, and stored Bags/gear stored here, too Good idea to have a ballistic barrier for unloading Must be outside of the simulation area Must be locked or guarded at all timesF0 The Arsenal $Here training weapons are distributed Can be just outside the simulation area, put preferable to have it inside the area Only Instructor, AIs or SOs can distribute training weaponsL6Weapons ConsiderationsALL simulated weapons must be identifiable in hand and in holster Color band around grip and foregun Color coding? If you have multiple types of confusable training weapons All live-weapon four safety rules apply Training guns can cause injuries!TBl("B l( "<&Extended/Multiple Sites$jQuestion: What about multiple sites like sniper s nests? Answer: Make multiple sterile simulation areas, with appropriate safety officers (possibly in radio comm with Instructor.)03u4"Two People Responsible for Safety##$l Instructor Safety Officer(s)  Instructor designated> *6$ .Who s Also Responsible?$.EVERYONE is responsible All participants are required to call attention to safety violations Danger of  cool factor Brings out the child in everyone E! ' !   " fInstructor s Responsibilities  Prior to Simulation44$<Designing or approving the simulation Critical  NO un-aware participants in area! Designing the documentation Scripts for role players Training documentation Student paperwork Designing or approving the simulation area(s) Designing or approving the sanitizing chamber and the arsenal ~&-Bm&-BmH2vInstructor s Responsibilities  Prior to Simulation  con t<<$Designating SOs and AIs Getting all student paperwork filled out Making sure all pre-existing injuries are worked around Put the onus on the student to report a priori Mark student & brief role players about injury Align training weapons with protective equipmentBy^2y^2,7  G1dInstructor s Responsibilities  During Simulation"32$ "Starting the simulation in action Stopping the action for safety or remediation Declaring the simulation over Keeping track of which projectiles hit whom Overall safety of the participants and bystanders Student coaching during the simulation Student de-briefing afterwardsHI&&*&>Z| .>SO s Responsibilities  One Job $(At least one SO designated NOT the Instructor One person cannot maintain control of all functions SO has NO other responsibilities other than safetyD.43. 43 hI3DSO s Responsibilities  Clear Area##$Initial clear of area of ALL weapons and ammunition with 2-step protocol: Visual clear of the area Interrogative clear of the area Should also clear of other dangers  glass, sharp objects, tripping hazards, etc.`J Z9" ZR ZJ 9R ,W SJ4VSO s Responsibilities  Clear Participants,,$(Inspection of EVERY person coming into area with 3-step protocol Visual search of person Physical search of person Areas likely to contain weapons Cross-gender OK with discretion and search sticks Wanding has problems Interrogation of person Students can also check each other"ZZ2 ZgZ Z# Z"2g  #>H h$  8SO s Responsibilities - More$SO decisions FINAL  Instructor cannot over-rule If SO loses continuous control of area, must clear area and start from scratchD1OnM7Identification$BSOs, AIs and Instructor visually identifiable  bright cap or vest Non-participants (approved observers) can be color-coded as out of play with vest, cap, etc. ,T! Other Safety Considerations$$At least one first responder kit on site All injuries sustained must be reported to Instructor 2nd safety violation = expulsion Horseplay is a violation All weapons present must be inert: OC, baton, pistol, non-lethal, etc. Dislodged protective equipment mandates stopping the action All weapons use under the eye of the Instructor  no student freelancingXZZZ)TN8Taser ConsiderationsZNeed to allow live Taser or dummy Taser is Taser is carried Live Taser can have either no cartridges or training cartridges  SO must search appropriately Training cartridges mandate a Taser training suit for role players Can get expensive Best bet is maybe no cartridges Train Taser firing separatelyTZZ ZZ H `p#*Simulations Two Types$s See what happens Murray: Experimental Learning Teach a skill or desired behavior Murray: Experiential Learning #   "   ,6$To See What Happens$LSet it up Script appropriately Let it unfold Useful to: Explore a situation - research As a test of skills  assessment Best done with instructor or experienced cadre\-"  @/- @/,k9%"To Teach a Skill/Desired Behavior *#$"$$Requires careful thought and preparation Must build complex skills on foundation of elemental skills Elemental skills may not require Airsoft equipment Skills must be possible to perform Keep realistic shots fired, out of action, still in action Winning is preferable, in general, to losing Except to drill home a failure mode must emphasize that it was a failure drillTe3Oe3O& What to Teach$<Not just shooting Observation Judgments Cover Verbalization Distance management Force level selection & transition including no force and retreats Proficiency('(Developing a Simulation to Teach a Skill))$Specify the skill to be learned or the desired behavior, and assign a reference number to it. If the desired behavior or skill to be learned requires multiple elemental skills to be first mastered, insure that this has first been done. Describe briefly and diagram the simulation Script the simulation to the appropriate degree (how can the scenario go sideways?) Prepare the role players Brief the student(s) Insure area safety Run the simulation Evaluate/de-brief the student " Z" Z/ "4">T"(Hints  POs as role players  pros and cons Not a game of paintball Staging area next to entry point Store training weapons Put participants on deck Video taping good, but potential liability put into policy DOCUMENT all training  see appendix for sample form Hot/cold training area Clear training weapons after simulation over?p] 0  . ]0.)Technique Validation?  = Can we use simulations to validate the techniques we teach?>!>>'What s Next   ,Test Running simulations  0$(  r  S    r  S $   H  0޽h ? ̙33  @:(  r  S      S ,  "P@08XH  0޽h ? ̙33r,# ¹ ,Nt,( :*F/ 0|DTimes New RomanA hPv 0h( 0DArialNew RomanA hPv 0h( 0" DComic Sans MSnA hPv 0h( 0B0DOldEnglishMSnA hPv 0h( 0"@DWingdingsMSnA hPv 0h( 0 ` .  @n?" dd@  @@`` v<  #*-3456#8!    8': "$%,+./&1<=>?$/R$2I)UQgtّ+ /R$>%m5By  /c $p̙33f3@ g4BdBdv 0\"ppp@ <4BdBd` 0lB pթʚ;2Nʚ;<4!d!d{ 0t<4dddd{ 0t___PPT9/ 0($ 5L3,4X? %O =$Force-on-Force Simulation Instructor%%V3.0 Objectives $This course is about SAFETY. OBJECTIVE: Instructors will be able to maintain a safe training environment while conducting f-o-f simulations It is not a instructor development course, nor a scenario development course, although theses subjects are touched upon. Ken Murray s Training at the Speed of Life is a good resource here" ""d"""", AssumptionsThis course is designed for current firearms instructors. All potential instructors are familiar with current firearms and use of force doctrine and binding court decisions. All potential instructors are familiar with the concept of the force continuum and the proper place of firearms within it. The content and conduct of f-o-f simulations will be in line with agency use of force policy. ,9"P?(Three Levels of Training $Static: Range drills Weapons fundamentals Dynamic: Video simulators Decision making Interactive: Role-playing simulations Performance evaluationZZZZ&ZZ$ $ &$  Definitions: Simulation Types"$fSimulation refers to a realistic role-played enactment of potentially real situations. Force need not be involved. Force-on-force simulations are those requiring the use of some level of potential force by at least one role player. Integrated use of force simulations require at least one transition between force levels on the part of the officer student. bf k gf Reasons For Simulations$To improve officer performance To increase officer safety To increase public safety To induce training that is a realistic as possible To inoculate against the effects of stress and body alarm reaction To assess officer behavior in realistic situations To remediate such behavior as necessary To uncover areas of training deficiency--officer s and departments To reinforce good tactics To develop and assess judgmental skills To develop and test new tactics Morale and confidence builderLegal Dictates for Simulations$2Graham v. Connor 109 S.Ct. 1865 (1989) Board of County Commissioners of Bryon County, Oklahoma v. Brown, 520 U.S. 397, (1997) Oklahoma v. Tuttle 471 U.S. 808 (1985) City of Canton v. Harris, 489 U.S. 378 (1989) Tennessee v. Garner, 471 U.S. 1 (1985) Walker v. City of New York 974 F.2nd 292 (2nd Cir. 1992) Brown v. Gray, 227 F.3rd 1278 (10 Cir 2000) Allen v. Muskogee 119 F.3rd, 837 (10 Cir. 1997) Leatherman v. Tarrant County Narcotics and Intelligence and Coordination Unit, 113 S.Ct. 1160 (1993) Zuchel v. City and County of Denver, 997 F.2nd 730 (10 Cir. 1993) Popow v. City of Margate, 476 F.Supp. 1237 (D.N.J. 1979) Cornfield v. Consolidated High School District No. 230, 991 F.2nd 1316 (1993) Votour v. Vitale, 761 F.2nd 812 (1985) Davis v. Mason County State standards insufficient!Z"*"*""*-"*"*"*&"* "Message From the Courts$More frequent training Moving targets Reduced Light Judgmental training Use of cover Realistic environments Policy reinforcement Force level integration and transitions Relevance to assignments: patrol, undercover, investigations, undercover, etc.8Z""9# Good QuestionQUESTION: Have there been any court cases that have vindicated simulation training? ANSWER: Cases in which the police have a strong case are seldom appealed to the levels that make case law.& Kl/Simulation Technologies@Most Realistic Paintball Simunitions FX and similar Airmunitions Airsoft Quite Practical Dry real guns  but not recommended Blue guns Water pistols Cap guns^=Ev=E0 Paintball v .40 - .68 caliber balls typical Up to 300 hundred fps Compressed CO2 and N2 powered Long guns and handguns available One-several hundred dollars Non-restricted&" 1!Paintball Strengths / Weaknesses"" "Strengths Inexpensive Guns and gear easy to find Pain compliance Marking Weaknesses Not like real guns Can t use standard gear  holsters, etc Un-natural physical orientation necessary MarkingT ? m ? m2Simunitions FX and SimilartFires real rounds with paint filled bullet Approx. 400 fps Uses real but modified guns Restricted to LE and military31Simunitions FX & Similar Strengths / WeaknessespStrengths Actual weapons can use real gear Marking Pain compliance Weaknesses Actual weapons live fire potential Expensive both guns and rounds Guns must be continually cleaned MarkingL 9 k 9 kAirsoft$1:1 replicas 6mm BBs ABS or starch 0.12g - 0.5g 200-450 fps Hop-Up = underspin Spring guns (Green) Gas guns CO2 guns AEGs (Automatic Electric Guns) Note: upgrades and alterations potentially undesirableZZ7Z0 2 \-Airsoft Demonstration9 Demonstration and hand-on session with Airsoft weapons,88Airsoft Strengths$DLittle injury potential, even at close quarters Inexpensive True replica guns available  broad selection - normal equipment, techniques and tactics can be used Non-regulated devices Non Marking - can use actual deployment environments for training  buildings, cruisers, etc. No set-up time No specialized training required on part of participants Little protective equipment necessary  can use normal clothing, etc.@)Airsoft Weaknesses$(Non-marking? We don t think so Too little pain? Depends on protection Fragile Can t drop guns or magazines Handguns less reliable than we d preferA*A Word on BlanksActual blank guns are dangerous You re using real guns The gas/projectiles can cause injury SafeShot or similar You re using real guns Nothing escapes the gun so safer But all they do is make noise! Worth the risk and expense? Why not use dummy guns? Z<ZZ8ZZ4Z <84  5The Law of Large NumbersAny activity performed tens of thousands of times a year will result in every possible outcome Therefore we must strive for perfection, not just  safe enough & because 0.01% of ten thousand is someone s life! Currently about 2 officers lost per year in training Water leakage analogy No leakage is acceptable in a house Any leakage causes damage*>>B+Fatality Example0SWAT Exercise Real weapons used in training Loaded rifle introduced into area Officer was sent back to station to obtain it Rifle then  dry fired at PON@.@.7!Fatality ExampleTactical training Real weapons used in training Team loaded in van after lunch Member grabs mag from van after having trouble with his PO shot with live round from the magazine during exercise&6 Fatality ExampleFederal SpecOps Team Using MILES LASER system Live mag inserted into rifle Pre-exercise inspection had failed to find the live mag Team member killed&8"Fatality ExampleCanada Real weapons used in training Officer left training area to get camera from car Officer reloaded pistol since he was going into a public area He failed to clear when re-entering training area&;$Common Killing ThemesSafety protocol was insufficient  by definition People not searched in initially People leave training area and return without being search Real weapons used in training Why?????? Unloaded real guns = dummy guns Reserve real weapons for marksmanship training Dummy and non-lethal projectile training guns for movement and tactics training4" ZZ=%$In Grandpa's Day& .$In Grandpa's day, range safety was minimal Today, we live and breathe the 4 firearms safety rules Today, simulation safety is minimal We must learn to be paranoid about  safety leakages It s a mindset/cultural changeK5TA Life-Saving Safety Protocol Two CriteriaNMust be completely safe Zero% safety leakage by design Must be practical cannot be so cumbersome, time-consuming, or resource intensive that it is impractical to implement Ballistic vest comfort / usage analogy No inordinate  rings of safety Uses reasonable number of people Takes little time " ZZu" ZzZZ uz  C-Two Kinds of Danger$5From Projectiles From live weapons in training area 6#6 +"Managing Airsoft Projectile Hazard##$^All role players (minimum) Goggles Neck protection Face protection Women: vest or other breast protection All participants (minimum) Goggles Optional but recommended Groin protection Gloves strongly recommended Long pants/shirt Ear protection strongly recommended Mouth guard Scalp protection  ball capZOZZZZZO  D.9Managing Simunitions FX and Paintball Projectiles Hazard::$All participants (minimum) Eye protection Neck protection Face protection Women: vest or breast protection Groin protection Gloves Long pants/shirt Ear protection Mouth guard Scalp protection  ball cap* .Making Simulation Area Safe From Live Weapons//$Physically separate Taped off if no hard physical boundary Difficult with expanded or mobile simulations But no excuse for not doing it! ONE entry point X exit points Free from non-participants except for approved observersU 9U     9  E/Sanitizing Chamber$Here weapons are removed, unloaded if necessary, and stored Bags/gear stored here, too Good idea to have a ballistic barrier for unloading Must be outside of the simulation area Must be locked or guarded at all timesF0 The Arsenal $Here training weapons are distributed Can be just outside the simulation area, put preferable to have it inside the area Only Instructor, AIs or SOs can distribute training weaponsL6Weapons ConsiderationsALL simulated weapons must be identifiable in hand and in holster Color band around grip and foregun Color coding? If you have multiple types of confusable training weapons All live-weapon four safety rules apply Training guns can cause injuries!TBl("B l( "<&Extended/Multiple Sites$jQuestion: What about multiple sites like sniper s nests? Answer: Make multiple sterile simulation areas, with appropriate safety officers (possibly in radio comm with Instructor.)03u4"Two People Responsible for Safety##$l Instructor Safety Officer(s)  Instructor designated> *6$ .Who s Also Responsible?$.EVERYONE is responsible All participants are required to call attention to safety violations Danger of  cool factor Brings out the child in everyone E! ' !   " fInstructor s Responsibilities  Prior to Simulation44$<Designing or approving the simulation Critical  NO un-aware participants in area! Designing the documentation Scripts for role players Training documentation Student paperwork Designing or approving the simulation area(s) Designing or approving the sanitizing chamber and the arsenal ~&-Bm&-BmH2vInstructor s Responsibilities  Prior to Simulation  con t<<$Designating SOs and AIs Getting all student paperwork filled out Making sure all pre-existing injuries are worked around Put the onus on the student to report a priori Mark student & brief role players about injury Align training weapons with protective equipmentBy^2y^2G1dInstructor s Responsibilities  During Simulation"32$ "Starting the simulation in action Stopping the action for safety or remediation Declaring the simulation over Keeping track of which projectiles hit whom Overall safety of the participants and bystanders Student coaching during the simulation Student de-briefing afterwardsHI&&*&.>SO s Responsibilities  One Job $(At least one SO designated NOT the Instructor One person cannot maintain control of all functions SO has NO other responsibilities other than safetyD.43. 43 I3DSO s Responsibilities  Clear Area##$Initial clear of area of ALL weapons and ammunition with 2-step protocol: Visual clear of the area Interrogative clear of the area Should also clear of other dangers  glass, sharp objects, tripping hazards, etc.`J Z9" ZR ZJ 9R J4VSO s Responsibilities  Clear Participants,,$Inspection of EVERY person coming into area with 3-step protocol Visual search of person Physical search of person Areas likely to contain weapons Cross-gender OK with discretion and search sticks Wanding has problems Interrogation of person Students can also check each other"ZZ2 ZgZ Z# Z"2g  #  8SO s Responsibilities - More$SO decisions FINAL  Instructor cannot over-rule If SO loses continuous control of area, must clear area and start from scratchD1OnM7Identification$BSOs, AIs and Instructor visually identifiable  bright cap or vest Non-participants (approved observers) can be color-coded as out of play with vest, cap, etc. ! Other Safety Considerations$At least one first responder kit on site All injuries sustained must be reported to Instructor 2nd safety violation = expulsion Horseplay is a violation All weapons present must be inert: OC, baton, pistol, non-lethal, etc. Dislodged protective equipment mandates stopping the action All weapons use under the eye of the Instructor  no student freelancingXZZZ)TN8Taser ConsiderationsZNeed to allow live Taser or dummy Taser is Taser is carried Live Taser can have either no cartridges or training cartridges  SO must search appropriately Training cartridges mandate a Taser training suit for role players Can get expensive Best bet is maybe no cartridges Train Taser firing separatelyTZZ ZZ #*Simulations Two Types$| See what happens Murray: Experimental Learning Teach a skill or elicit a desired behavior Murray: Experiential Learning ZZZ,ZZZ  " "   $To See What Happens$LSet it up Script appropriately Let it unfold Useful to: Explore a situation - research As a test of skills  assessment Best done with instructor or experienced cadre\-"  @/- @/%"To Teach a Skill/Desired Behavior *#$"$$LRequires careful thought and preparation Must build complex skills on foundation of elemental skills Elemental skills may not require projectile-firing equipment Break down real-world events into elemental skills Work skills backwards, like some firearms instructors Skills must be possible to perform for the student at their level<eBeB':Developing a Simulation to Teach a Skill/Elicit a Behavior;;$Specify the skill to be learned or the desired behavior If the desired behavior or skill to be learned requires multiple elemental skills to be first mastered, insure that this has first been done. Describe briefly and diagram the simulation Script the simulation to the appropriate degree (how can the scenario go sideways?) Prepare the role players Brief the student(s) Insure area safety Run the simulation Evaluate/de-brief the student t" Z" Z/ ""K"& What to Teach$Not just shooting Observation Judgments Cover Verbalization Distance management Force level selection & transition including no force and retreats Proficiency Focus on likely street events not just catastrophes,(Simulation Hints  POs as role players  pros and cons POs not always good actors  but can be! PO role players also learn Local actors usually available, but scheduling and liability issues Not a kid s game of paintball Have an on-deck area for next students through Video taping good, but potential liability put any destruction practice into policy DOCUMENT all training  see Murray for sample formsh$ Z Z Z$LP:0Simulation Hints  con t  DFor beginners, go very slow full speed not necessary Have to intelligently manage protective equipment w.r.t. the learning experience FIST suits? Taser suits? Practice immediate remediation send student out with a  pass Hot/cold training area Clear training weapons after simulation over?|ZZ?Z Z. Z?.Q;0Simulation Hints  con t  Bad guys must know when to  die  scripting issue Good guys never  die  they always fight until the simulation stopped by Instructor Keep it realistic # shots fired, calling out of action/still in action, etc. Winning is preferable, in general, to losing Except to drill home a failure mode must emphasize that it was a failure drill Don t use regular radio frequencies for simulations tZOZ4ZZZO4R< When to endDContinue simulation until problem resolved. Murray 3 possibilities: Subject under arrest Situation under control; parties depart Officer waiting for other units If subject under arrest, continue to: Cuffing? Radio transmissions complete Weapon reloaded Officer behind cover if appropriate jE]&ZE]&Z>'What s Next   ,Test Running simulations 0p$(  pr p S |p | r p S L| `   | H p 0޽h ? ̙33  @t$(  tr t S 4   r t S   H t 0޽h ? ̙33  p$(  r  S ^   r  S 4_  H  0޽h ? ̙33  |0(  |r | S b   r | S   "P@08XH  0޽h ? ̙33  0(  x  c $I   x  c $\J`0P   H  0޽h ? ̙33  $(  r  S |P   r  S $Q  H  0޽h ? ̙33   $(  r  S X   r  S X  H  0޽h ? ̙33  0$(  r  S a   r  S xb  H  0޽h ? ̙33  @$(  r  S f   r  S g  H  0޽h ? ̙33  P$(  r  S Pu   r  S  v   H  0޽h ? ̙33  `$(  r  S 0|   r  S |  H  0޽h ? ̙33  pt$(  tr t S 4   r t S   H t 0޽h ? ̙33  D$      !"#$%&'()*+,-./0123456789:;<=>?@ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ[\]^_`abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz{|}~(  Dr D S    r D S    H D 0޽h ? ̙33  $(  r  S     r  S Dp  H  0޽h ? ̙33  $(  r  S    r  S X  H  0޽h ? ̙33  $(  r  S    r  S   H  0޽h ? ̙33  $(  r  S    r  S   H  0޽h ? ̙33  $(  r  S h   r  S $  H  0޽h ? ̙33  :(  r  S ܸ     S «`  "P@08XH  0޽h ? ̙33  :(  r  S \Ϋ     S 8ի  "P@08XH  0޽h ? ̙33  $(  r  S     r  S @  H  0޽h ? ̙33  $(  r  S    r  S @  H  0޽h ? ̙33   $(  r  S    r  S Tޫ@  H  0޽h ? ̙33   $(  r  S  |  | r  S ȉ| | H  0޽h ? ̙33  0$(  r  S    r  S $   H  0޽h ? ̙33  @:(  r  S      S ,  "P@08XH  0޽h ? ̙33  P$(  r  S ޫ   r  S t߫p  H  0޽h ? ̙33  p:(  r  S      S L{  "P@08XH  0޽h ? ̙33  `$(  r  S    r  S 8  H  0޽h ? ̙33  $(  r  S h!   r  S $"  H  0޽h ? ̙33  $(  r  S ̏   r  S ,  H  0޽h ? ̙33  $(  r  S 4   r  S $@  H  0޽h ? ̙33  $(  r  S    r  S ltw w H  0޽h ? ̙33  x$(  xr x S 5   r x S <6  H x 0޽h ? ̙33r $QSY[]_pm8ԮְĴ²+8ToH|cheTg@i,kvx|zd~a;@PR`Vrtx@$\p46>ԑ$P0t' ̽LRtY( :*F/ 0|DTimes New RomanV hPv 0h( 0DArialNew RomanV hPv 0h( 0" DComic Sans MSnV hPv 0h( 0B0DOldEnglishMSnV hPv 0h( 0"@DWingdingsMSnV hPv 0h( 0 ` .  @n?" dd@  @@`` v< !(+2346!7 <     < <;7%  "#*),-$/189:?$pR$2I)UQgtّ+ pR$>%m5By  pc $p̙33f3@ g4BdBdv 0\"ppp@ <4BdBd` 0W pթʚ;2Nʚ;<4!d!d{ 0t<4dddd{ 0t___PPT9/ 0($ 5L3,4X? %O =$Force-on-Force Simulation Instructor%%V3.0 Objectives $This course is about SAFETY. OBJECTIVE: Instructors will be able to maintain a safe training environment while conducting f-o-f simulations It is not a instructor development course, nor a scenario development course, although these subjects are touched upon. Ken Murray s Training at the Speed of Life is a good resource here" ""d"""", AssumptionsThis course is designed for current firearms instructors. All potential instructors are familiar with current firearms and use of force doctrine and binding court decisions. All potential instructors are familiar with the concept of the force continuum and the proper place of firearms within it. The content and conduct of f-o-f simulations will be in line with agency use of force policy. ,9"P?(Three Levels of Training $Courtesy of Static: Range drills Weapons fundamentals Dynamic: Video simulators Decision making Interactive: Role-playing simulations Performance evaluation !ZZZZZ&ZZ $  &  Definitions: Simulation Types"$fSimulation refers to a realistic role-played enactment of potentially real situations. Force need not be involved. Force-on-force simulations are those requiring the use of some level of potential force by at least one role player. Integrated use of force simulations require at least one transition between force levels on the part of the officer student. bf k gf Reasons For Simulations$To improve officer performance To increase officer safety To increase public safety To induce training that is a realistic as possible To inoculate against the effects of stress and body alarm reaction To assess officer behavior in realistic situations To remediate such behavior as necessary To uncover areas of training deficiency--officer s and departments To reinforce good tactics To develop and assess judgmental skills To develop and test new tactics Morale and confidence builderLegal Dictates for Simulations$2Graham v. Connor 109 S.Ct. 1865 (1989) Board of County Commissioners of Bryon County, Oklahoma v. Brown, 520 U.S. 397, (1997) Oklahoma v. Tuttle 471 U.S. 808 (1985) City of Canton v. Harris, 489 U.S. 378 (1989) Tennessee v. Garner, 471 U.S. 1 (1985) Walker v. City of New York 974 F.2nd 292 (2nd Cir. 1992) Brown v. Gray, 227 F.3rd 1278 (10 Cir 2000) Allen v. Muskogee 119 F.3rd, 837 (10 Cir. 1997) Leatherman v. Tarrant County Narcotics and Intelligence and Coordination Unit, 113 S.Ct. 1160 (1993) Zuchel v. City and County of Denver, 997 F.2nd 730 (10 Cir. 1993) Popow v. City of Margate, 476 F.Supp. 1237 (D.N.J. 1979) Cornfield v. Consolidated High School District No. 230, 991 F.2nd 1316 (1993) Votour v. Vitale, 761 F.2nd 812 (1985) Davis v. Mason County State standards insufficient!Z"*"*""*-"*"*"*&"* "Message From the Courts$More frequent training Moving targets Reduced Light Judgmental training Use of cover Realistic environments Policy reinforcement Force level integration and transitions Relevance to assignments: patrol, undercover, investigations, undercover, etc.8Z""9# Good QuestionQUESTION: Have there been any court cases that have vindicated simulation training? ANSWER: Cases in which the police have a strong case are seldom appealed to the levels that make case law.& Kl/Simulation Technologies@Most Realistic Paintball Simunitions FX and similar Airmunitions Airsoft Quite Practical Dry real guns  but not recommended Blue guns Water pistols Cap guns^=Ev=E0 Paintball v .40 - .68 caliber balls typical Up to 300 hundred fps Compressed CO2 and N2 powered Long guns and handguns available One-several hundred dollars Non-restricted&" 1!Paintball Strengths / Weaknesses"" "Strengths Inexpensive Guns and gear easy to find Pain compliance Marking Weaknesses Not like real guns Can t use standard gear  holsters, etc Un-natural physical orientation necessary MarkingT ? m ? m2Simunitions FX and SimilartFires real rounds with paint filled bullet Approx. 400 fps Uses real but modified guns Restricted to LE and military31Simunitions FX & Similar Strengths / WeaknessespStrengths Actual weapons can use real gear Marking Pain compliance Weaknesses Actual weapons live fire potential Expensive both guns and rounds Guns must be continually cleaned MarkingL 9 k 9 kAirsoft$1:1 replicas 6mm BBs ABS or starch 0.12g - 0.5g 200-450 fps Hop-Up = underspin Spring guns (Green) Gas guns CO2 guns AEGs (Automatic Electric Guns) Note: upgrades and alterations potentially undesirableZZ7Z0 2 \-Airsoft Demonstration9 Demonstration and hand-on session with Airsoft weapons,88Airsoft Strengths$DLittle injury potential, even at close quarters Inexpensive True replica guns available  broad selection - normal equipment, techniques and tactics can be used Non-regulated devices Non Marking - can use actual deployment environments for training  buildings, cruisers, etc. No set-up time No specialized training required on part of participants Little protective equipment necessary  can use normal clothing, etc.@)Airsoft Weaknesses$(Non-marking? We don t think so Too little pain? Depends on protection Fragile Can t drop guns or magazines Handguns less reliable than we d preferA*A Word on BlanksActual blank guns are dangerous You re using real guns The gas/projectiles can cause injury SafeShot or similar You re using real guns Nothing escapes the gun so safer But all they do is make noise! Worth the risk and expense? Why not use dummy guns? Z<ZZ8ZZ4Z <84  5The Law of Large NumbersAny activity performed tens of thousands of times a year will result in every possible outcome Therefore we must strive for perfection, not just  safe enough & because 0.01% of ten thousand is someone s life! Currently about 2 officers lost per year in training Water leakage analogy No leakage is acceptable in a house Any leakage causes damage*>>B+Fatality Example0SWAT Exercise Real weapons used in training Loaded rifle introduced into area Officer was sent back to station to obtain it Rifle then  dry fired at PON@.@.7!Fatality ExampleTactical training Real weapons used in training Team loaded in van after lunch Member grabs mag from van after having trouble with his PO shot with live round from the magazine during exercise&6 Fatality ExampleFederal SpecOps Team Using MILES LASER system Live mag inserted into rifle Pre-exercise inspection had failed to find the live mag Team member killed&8"Fatality ExampleCanada Real weapons used in training Officer left training area to get camera from car Officer reloaded pistol since he was going into a public area He failed to clear when re-entering training area&;$Common Killing ThemesSafety protocol was insufficient  by definition People not searched in initially People leave training area and return without being search Real weapons used in training Why?????? Unloaded real guns = dummy guns Reserve real weapons for marksmanship training Dummy and non-lethal projectile training guns for movement and tactics training4" ZZ=%$In Grandpa's Day& .$In Grandpa's day, range safety was minimal Today, we live and breathe the 4 firearms safety rules Today, simulation safety is minimal We must learn to be paranoid about  safety leakages It s a mindset/cultural changeK5TA Life-Saving Safety Protocol Two CriteriaNMust be completely safe Zero% safety leakage by design Must be practical cannot be so cumbersome, time-consuming, or resource intensive that it is impractical to implement Ballistic vest comfort / usage analogy No inordinate  rings of safety Uses reasonable number of people Takes little time " ZZu" ZzZZ uz  C-Two Kinds of Danger$5From Projectiles From live weapons in training area 6#6 +"Managing Airsoft Projectile Hazard##$^All role players (minimum) Goggles Neck protection Face protection Women: vest or other breast protection All participants (minimum) Goggles Optional but recommended Groin protection Gloves strongly recommended Long pants/shirt Ear protection strongly recommended Mouth guard Scalp protection  ball capZOZZZZZO  D.9Managing Simunitions FX and Paintball Projectiles Hazard::$All participants (minimum) Eye protection Neck protection Face protection Women: vest or breast protection Groin protection Gloves Long pants/shirt Ear protection Mouth guard Scalp protection  ball cap* .Making Simulation Area Safe From Live Weapons//$Physically separate Taped off if no hard physical boundary Difficult with expanded or mobile simulations But no excuse for not doing it! ONE entry point X exit points Free from non-participants except for approved observersU 9U     9  E/Sanitizing Chamber$Here weapons are removed, unloaded if necessary, and stored Bags/gear stored here, too Good idea to have a ballistic barrier for unloading Must be outside of the simulation area Must be locked or guarded at all timesF0 The Arsenal $Here training weapons are distributed Can be just outside the simulation area, put preferable to have it inside the area Only Instructor, AIs or SOs can distribute training weaponsL6Weapons ConsiderationsALL simulated weapons must be identifiable in hand and in holster Color band around grip and foregun Color coding? If you have multiple types of confusable training weapons All live-weapon four safety rules apply Training guns can cause injuries!TBl("B l( "<&Extended/Multiple Sites$jQuestion: What about multiple sites like sniper s nests? Answer: Make multiple sterile simulation areas, with appropriate safety officers (possibly in radio comm with Instructor.)03u4"Two People Responsible for Safety##$l Instructor Safety Officer(s)  Instructor designated> *6$ .Who s Also Responsible?$.EVERYONE is responsible All participants are required to call attention to safety violations Danger of  cool factor Brings out the child in everyone E! ' !   " fInstructor s Responsibilities  Prior to Simulation44$<Designing or approving the simulation Critical  NO un-aware participants in area! Designing the documentation Scripts for role players Training documentation Student paperwork Designing or approving the simulation area(s) Designing or approving the sanitizing chamber and the arsenal ~&-Bm&-BmH2vInstructor s Responsibilities  Prior to Simulation  con t<<$Designating SOs and AIs Getting all student paperwork filled out Making sure all pre-existing injuries are worked around Put the onus on the student to report a priori Mark student & brief role players about injury Align training weapons with protective equipmentBy^2y^2G1dInstructor s Responsibilities  During Simulation"32$ "Starting the simulation in action Stopping the action for safety or remediation Declaring the simulation over Keeping track of which projectiles hit whom Overall safety of the participants and bystanders Student coaching during the simulation Student de-briefing afterwardsHI&&*&.>SO s Responsibilities  One Job $(At least one SO designated NOT the Instructor One person cannot maintain control of all functions SO has NO other responsibilities other than safetyD.43. 43 I3DSO s Responsibilities  Clear Area##$Initial clear of area of ALL weapons and ammunition with 2-step protocol: Visual clear of the area Interrogative clear of the area Should also clear of other dangers  glass, sharp objects, tripping hazards, etc.`J Z9" ZR ZJ 9R J4VSO s Responsibilities  Clear Participants,,$Inspection of EVERY person coming into area with 3-step protocol Visual search of person Physical search of person Areas likely to contain weapons Cross-gender OK with discretion and search sticks Wanding has problems Interrogation of person Students can also check each other"ZZ2 ZgZ Z# Z"2g  #  8SO s Responsibilities - More$SO decisions FINAL  Instructor cannot over-rule If SO loses continuous control of area, must clear area and start from scratchD1OnM7Identification$BSOs, AIs and Instructor visually identifiable  bright cap or vest Non-participants (approved observers) can be color-coded as out of play with vest, cap, etc. ! Other Safety Considerations$At least one first responder kit on site All injuries sustained must be reported to Instructor 2nd safety violation = expulsion Horseplay is a violation All weapons present must be inert: OC, baton, pistol, non-lethal, etc. Dislodged protective equipment mandates stopping the action All weapons use under the eye of the Instructor  no student freelancingXZZZ)TN8Taser ConsiderationsZNeed to allow live Taser or dummy Taser is Taser is carried Live Taser can have either no cartridges or training cartridges  SO must search appropriately Training cartridges mandate a Taser training suit for role players Can get expensive Best bet is maybe no cartridges Train Taser firing separatelyTZZ ZZ #*Simulations Two Types$| See what happens Murray: Experimental Learning Teach a skill or elicit a desired behavior Murray: Experiential Learning ZZZ,ZZZ  " "   $To See What Happens$LSet it up Script appropriately Let it unfold Useful to: Explore a situation - research As a test of skills  assessment Best done with instructor or experienced cadre\-"  @/- @/%"To Teach a Skill/Desired Behavior *#$"$$LRequires careful thought and preparation Must build complex skills on foundation of elemental skills Elemental skills may not require projectile-firing equipment Break down real-world events into elemental skills Work skills backwards, like some firearms instructors Skills must be possible to perform for the student at their level<eBeB':Developing a Simulation to Teach a Skill/Elicit a Behavior;;$Specify the skill to be learned or the desired behavior If the desired behavior or skill to be learned requires multiple elemental skills to be first mastered, insure that this has first been done. Describe briefly and diagram the simulation Script the simulation to the appropriate degree (how can the scenario go sideways?) Prepare the role players Brief the student(s) Insure area safety Run the simulation Evaluate/de-brief the student t" Z" Z/ ""K"& What to Teach$Not just shooting Observation Judgments Cover Verbalization Distance management Force level selection & transition including no force and retreats Proficiency Focus on likely street events not just catastrophes,(Simulation Hints  POs as role players  pros and cons POs not always good actors  but can be! PO role players also learn Local actors usually available, but scheduling and liability issues Not a kid s game of paintball Have an on-deck area for next students through Video taping good, but potential liability put any destruction practice into policy DOCUMENT all training  see Murray for sample formsj$ Z Z Z$LP:0Simulation Hints  con t  DFor beginners, go very slow full speed not necessary Have to intelligently manage protective equipment w.r.t. the learning experience FIST suits? Taser suits? Practice immediate remediation send student out with a  pass Hot/cold training area Clear training weapons after simulation over?|ZZ?Z Z. Z?.Q;0Simulation Hints  con t  Bad guys must know when to  die  scripting issue Good guys never  die  they always fight until the simulation stopped by Instructor Keep it realistic # shots fired, calling out of action/still in action, etc. Winning is preferable, in general, to losing Except to drill home a failure mode must emphasize that it was a failure drill Don t use regular radio frequencies for simulations tZOZ4ZZZO4R< When to endDContinue simulation until problem resolved. Murray 3 possibilities: Subject under arrest Situation under control; parties depart Officer waiting for other units If subject under arrest, continue to: Cuffing? Radio transmissions complete Weapon reloaded Officer behind cover if appropriate jE]&ZE]&Z>'What s Next   ,Test Running simulations  t$(  tr t S e   r t S   H t 0޽h ? ̙33  |0(  |r | S Р   r | S    | c A8`F:\DAVEFILE\1 IMAGE FILES\CRESTS & LOGOS\CAPS LOGOS\CAPS LOGO RELIEF N SHADOW BLUE BACK.jpg H | 0޽h ? ̙33rxT?V( TYRt( :*F/ 0|DTimes New RomanV hPv 0h( 0DArialNew RomanV hPv 0h( 0" DComic Sans MSnV hPv 0h( 0B0DOldEnglishMSnV hPv 0h( 0"@DWingdingsMSnV hPv 0h( 0 ` .  @n?" dd@  @@`` v< !(+2346!7 <     < <;7%  "#*),-$/189:?$pR$2I)UQgtّ+ pR$>%m5By  pc $p̙33f3@ g4BdBdv 0\"ppp@ <4BdBd` 0W pթʚ;2Nʚ;<4!d!d{ 0t<4dddd{ 0t___PPT9/ 0($ 5L3,4X? %O =$Force-on-Force Simulation Instructor%%V3.0 Objectives $This course is about SAFETY. OBJECTIVE: Instructors will be able to maintain a safe training environment while conducting f-o-f simulations It is not a instructor development course, nor a scenario development course, although these subjects are touched upon. Ken Murray s Training at the Speed of Life is a good resource here" ""d"""", AssumptionsThis course is designed for current firearms instructors. All potential instructors are familiar with current firearms and use of force doctrine and binding court decisions. All potential instructors are familiar with the concept of the force continuum and the proper place of firearms within it. The content and conduct of f-o-f simulations will be in line with agency use of force policy. ,9"P?(Three Levels of Training $Courtesy of Static: Range drills Weapons fundamentals Dynamic: Video simulators Decision making Interactive: Role-playing simulations Performance evaluation !ZZZZZ&ZZ $  &  Definitions: Simulation Types"$fSimulation refers to a realistic role-played enactment of potentially real situations. Force need not be involved. Force-on-force simulations are those requiring the use of some level of potential force by at least one role player. Integrated use of force simulations require at least one transition between force levels on the part of the officer student. bf k gf Reasons For Simulations$To improve officer performance To increase officer safety To increase public safety To induce training that is a realistic as possible To inoculate against the effects of stress and body alarm reaction To assess officer behavior in realistic situations To remediate such behavior as necessary To uncover areas of training deficiency--officer s and departments To reinforce good tactics To develop and assess judgmental skills To develop and test new tactics Morale and confidence builderLegal Dictates for Simulations$2Graham v. Connor 109 S.Ct. 1865 (1989) Board of County Commissioners of Bryon County, Oklahoma v. Brown, 520 U.S. 397, (1997) Oklahoma v. Tuttle 471 U.S. 808 (1985) City of Canton v. Harris, 489 U.S. 378 (1989) Tennessee v. Garner, 471 U.S. 1 (1985) Walker v. City of New York 974 F.2nd 292 (2nd Cir. 1992) Brown v. Gray, 227 F.3rd 1278 (10 Cir 2000) Allen v. Muskogee 119 F.3rd, 837 (10 Cir. 1997) Leatherman v. Tarrant County Narcotics and Intelligence and Coordination Unit, 113 S.Ct. 1160 (1993) Zuchel v. City and County of Denver, 997 F.2nd 730 (10 Cir. 1993) Popow v. City of Margate, 476 F.Supp. 1237 (D.N.J. 1979) Cornfield v. Consolidated High School District No. 230, 991 F.2nd 1316 (1993) Votour v. Vitale, 761 F.2nd 812 (1985) Davis v. Mason County State standards insufficient!Z"*"*""*-"*"*"*&"* "6Message From the Courts$5More frequent training Moving targets Reduced Light Judgmental training Use of cover Realistic environments Policy reinforcement Force level integration and transitions Relevance to assignments: patrol, undercover, investigations, undercover, etc. Whatever the officer can reasonably be expected to confont 86Z""=9# Good QuestionQUESTION: Have there been any court cases that have vindicated simulation training? ANSWER: Cases in which the police have a strong case are seldom appealed to the levels that make case law.& Kl/Simulation Technologies@Most Realistic Paintball Simunitions FX and similar Airmunitions Airsoft Quite Practical Dry real guns  but not recommended Blue guns Water pistols Cap guns^=Ev=E0 Paintball v .40 - .68 caliber balls typical Up to 300 hundred fps Compressed CO2 and N2 powered Long guns and handguns available One-several hundred dollars Non-restricted&" 1!Paintball Strengths / Weaknesses"" "Strengths Inexpensive Guns and gear easy to find Pain compliance Marking Weaknesses Not like real guns Can t use standard gear  holsters, etc Un-natural physical orientation necessary MarkingT ? m ? m2Simunitions FX and SimilartFires real rounds with paint filled bullet Approx. 400 fps Uses real but modified guns Restricted to LE and military31Simunitions FX & Similar Strengths / WeaknessespStrengths Actual weapons can use real gear Marking Pain compliance Weaknesses Actual weapons live fire potential Expensive both guns and rounds Guns must be continually cleaned MarkingL 9 k 9 kAirsoft$1:1 replicas 6mm BBs ABS or starch 0.12g - 0.5g 200-450 fps Hop-Up = underspin Spring guns (Green) Gas guns CO2 guns AEGs (Automatic Electric Guns) Note: upgrades and alterations potentially undesirableZZ7Z0 2 \-Airsoft Demonstration9 Demonstration and hand-on session with Airsoft weapons,88Airsoft Strengths$DLittle injury potential, even at close quarters Inexpensive True replica guns available  broad selection - normal equipment, techniques and tactics can be used Non-regulated devices Non Marking - can use actual deployment environments for training  buildings, cruisers, etc. No set-up time No specialized training required on part of participants Little protective equipment necessary  can use normal clothing, etc.@)Airsoft Weaknesses$(Non-marking? We don t think so Too little pain? Depends on protection Fragile Can t drop guns or magazines Handguns less reliable than we d preferA*A Word on BlanksActual blank guns are dangerous You re using real guns The gas/projectiles can cause injury SafeShot or similar You re using real guns Nothing escapes the gun so safer But all they do is make noise! Worth the risk and expense? Why not use dummy guns? Or cap pistols? Z<ZZ8ZZEZ <8E  5The Law of Large NumbersAny activity performed tens of thousands of times a year will result in every possible outcome Therefore we must strive for perfection, not just  safe enough & because 0.01% of ten thousand is someone s life! Currently about 2 officers lost per year in training Water leakage analogy No leakage is acceptable in a house Any leakage causes damage*>>B+Fatality Example0SWAT Exercise Real weapons used in training Loaded rifle introduced into area Officer was sent back to station to obtain it Rifle then  dry fired at PON@.@.7!Fatality ExampleTactical training Real weapons used in training Team loaded in van after lunch Member grabs mag from van after having trouble with his PO shot with live round from the magazine during exercise&6 Fatality ExampleFederal SpecOps Team Using MILES LASER system Live mag inserted into rifle Pre-exercise inspection had failed to find the live mag Team member killed&8"Fatality ExampleCanada Real weapons used in training Officer left training area to get camera from car Officer reloaded pistol since he was going into a public area He failed to clear when re-entering training area&;$Common Killing ThemesSafety protocol was insufficient  by definition People not searched in initially People leave training area and return without being search Real weapons used in training Why?????? Unloaded real guns = dummy guns Reserve real weapons for marksmanship training Dummy and non-lethal projectile training guns for movement and tactics training4" ZZ=%$In Grandpa's Day& .$In Grandpa's day, range safety was minimal Today, we live and breathe the 4 firearms safety rules Today, simulation safety is minimal We must learn to be paranoid about  safety leakages It s a mindset/cultural changeK5TA Life-Saving Safety Protocol Two CriteriaNMust be completely safe Zero% safety leakage by design Must be practical cannot be so cumbersome, time-consuming, or resource intensive that it is impractical to implement Ballistic vest comfort / usage analogy No inordinate  rings of safety Uses reasonable number of people Takes little time " ZZu" ZzZZ uz  C-Two Kinds of Danger$5From Projectiles From live weapons in training area 6#6 +"Managing Airsoft Projectile Hazard##$^All role players (minimum) Goggles Neck protection Face protection Women: vest or other breast protection All participants (minimum) Goggles Optional but recommended Groin protection Gloves strongly recommended Long pants/shirt Ear protection strongly recommended Mouth guard Scalp protection  ball capZOZZZZZO  D.9Managing Simunitions FX and Paintball Projectiles Hazard::$All participants (minimum) Eye protection Neck protection Face protection Women: vest or breast protection Groin protection Gloves Long pants/shirt Ear protection Mouth guard Scalp protection  ball cap* .Making Simulation Area Safe From Live Weapons//$Physically separate Taped off if no hard physical boundary Difficult with expanded or mobile simulations But no excuse for not doing it! ONE entry point X exit points Free from non-participants except for approved observersU 9U     9  E/Sanitizing Chamber$Here weapons are removed, unloaded if necessary, and stored Bags/gear stored here, too Good idea to have a ballistic barrier for unloading Must be outside of the simulation area Must be locked or guarded at all timesF0 The Arsenal $Here training weapons are distributed Can be just outside the simulation area, put preferable to have it inside the area Only Instructor, AIs or SOs can distribute training weaponsL6Weapons ConsiderationsALL simulated weapons must be identifiable in hand and in holster Color band around grip and foregun Color coding? If you have multiple types of confusable training weapons All live-weapon four safety rules apply Training guns can cause injuries!TBl("B l( "<&Extended/Multiple Sites$jQuestion: What about multiple sites like sniper s nests? Answer: Make multiple sterile simulation areas, with appropriate safety officers (possibly in radio comm with Instructor.)03u4"Two People Responsible for Safety##$l Instructor Safety Officer(s)  Instructor designated> *6$ .Who s Also Responsible?$.EVERYONE is responsible All participants are required to call attention to safety violations Danger of  cool factor Brings out the child in everyone E! ' !   " fInstructor s Responsibilities  Prior to Simulation44$<Designing or approving the simulation Critical  NO un-aware participants in area! Designing the documentation Scripts for role players Training documentation Student paperwork Designing or approving the simulation area(s) Designing or approving the sanitizing chamber and the arsenal ~&-Bm&-BmH2vInstructor s Responsibilities  Prior to Simulation  con t<<$Designating SOs and AIs Getting all student paperwork filled out Making sure all pre-existing injuries are worked around Put the onus on the student to report a priori Mark student & brief role players about injury Align training weapons with protective equipmentBy^2y^2G1dInstructor s Responsibilities  During Simulation"32$ "Starting the simulation in action Stopping the action for safety or remediation Declaring the simulation over Keeping track of which projectiles hit whom Overall safety of the participants and bystanders Student coaching during the simulation Student de-briefing afterwardsHI&&*&.>SO s Responsibilities  One Job $(At least one SO designated NOT the Instructor One person cannot maintain control of all functions SO has NO other responsibilities other than safetyD.43. 43 I3DSO s Responsibilities  Clear Area##$Initial clear of area of ALL weapons and ammunition with 2-step protocol: Visual clear of the area Interrogative clear of the area Should also clear of other dangers  glass, sharp objects, tripping hazards, etc.`J Z9" ZR ZJ 9R J4VSO s Responsibilities  Clear Participants,,$Inspection of EVERY person coming into area with 3-step protocol Visual search of person Physical search of person Areas likely to contain weapons Cross-gender OK with discretion and search sticks Wanding has problems Interrogation of person Students can also check each other"ZZ2 ZgZ Z# Z"2g  #  8SO s Responsibilities - More$SO decisions FINAL  Instructor cannot over-rule If SO loses continuous control of area, must clear area and start from scratchD1OnM7Identification$BSOs, AIs and Instructor visually identifiable  bright cap or vest Non-participants (approved observers) can be color-coded as out of play with vest, cap, etc. ! Other Safety Considerations$At least one first responder kit on site All injuries sustained must be reported to Instructor 2nd safety violation = expulsion Horseplay is a violation All weapons present must be inert: OC, baton, pistol, non-lethal, etc. Dislodged protective equipment mandates stopping the action All weapons use under the eye of the Instructor  no student freelancingXZZZ)TN8Taser ConsiderationsZNeed to allow live Taser or dummy Taser is Taser is carried Live Taser can have either no cartridges or training cartridges  SO must search appropriately Training cartridges mandate a Taser training suit for role players Can get expensive Best bet is maybe no cartridges Train Taser firing separatelyTZZ ZZ #*Simulations Two Types$| See what happens Murray: Experimental Learning Teach a skill or elicit a desired behavior Murray: Experiential Learning ZZZ,ZZZ  " "   $To See What Happens$LSet it up Script appropriately Let it unfold Useful to: Explore a situation - research As a test of skills  assessment Best done with instructor or experienced cadre\-"  @/- @/%"To Teach a Skill/Desired Behavior *#$"$$LRequires careful thought and preparation Must build complex skills on foundation of elemental skills Elemental skills may not require projectile-firing equipment Break down real-world events into elemental skills Work skills backwards, like some firearms instructors Skills must be possible to perform for the student at their level<eBeB':Developing a Simulation to Teach a Skill/Elicit a Behavior;;$Specify the skill to be learned or the desired behavior If the desired behavior or skill to be learned requires multiple elemental skills to be first mastered, insure that this has first been done. Describe briefly and diagram the simulation Script the simulation to the appropriate degree (how can the scenario go sideways?) Prepare the role players Brief the student(s) Insure area safety Run the simulation Evaluate/de-brief the student t" Z" Z/ ""K"& What to Teach$Not just shooting Observation Judgments Cover Verbalization Distance management Force level selection & transition including no force and retreats Proficiency Focus on likely street events not just catastrophes,(Simulation Hints  POs as role players  pros and cons POs not always good actors  but can be! PO role players also learn Local actors usually available, but scheduling and liability issues Not a kid s game of paintball Have an on-deck area for next students through Video taping good, but potential liability put any destruction practice into policy DOCUMENT all training  see Murray for sample formsj$ Z Z Z$LP:0Simulation Hints  con t  DFor beginners, go very slow full speed not necessary Have to intelligently manage protective equipment w.r.t. the learning experience FIST suits? Taser suits? Practice immediate remediation send student out with a  pass Hot/cold training area Clear training weapons after simulation over?|ZZ?Z Z. Z?.Q;0Simulation Hints  con t  Bad guys must know when to  die  scripting issue Good guys never  die  they always fight until the simulation stopped by Instructor Keep it realistic # shots fired, calling out of action/still in action, etc. Winning is preferable, in general, to losing Except to drill home a failure mode must emphasize that it was a failure drill Don t use regular radio frequencies for simulations tZOZ4ZZZO4R< When to endDContinue simulation until problem resolved. Murray 3 possibilities: Subject under arrest Situation under control; parties depart Officer waiting for other units If subject under arrest, continue to: Cuffing? Radio transmissions complete Weapon reloaded Officer behind cover if appropriate jE]&ZE]&Z>'What s Next   ,Test Running simulationsD  P(  Xr  0@r  S 82   r  S 2p  H  0޽h ? ̙33  `$(  r  S lw   r  S (x  H  0޽h ? ̙33  P$(  r  S    r  S   H  0޽h ? ̙33rZ BA.* YRtc( :*F/ 0|DTimes New RomanV hPv 0h( 0DArialNew RomanV hPv 0h( 0" DComic Sans MSnV hPv 0h( 0B0DOldEnglishMSnV hPv 0h( 0"@DWingdingsMSnV hPv 0h( 0 ` .  @n?" dd@  @@`` v< !(+2346!7 <     < <;7%  "#*),-$/189:?$pR$2I)UQgtّ+ pR$>%m5By  pc $p̙33f3@ g4BdBdv 0\"ppp@ <4BdBd` 0W pթʚ;2Nʚ;<4!d!d{ 0t<4dddd{ 0t___PPT9/ 0($ 5L3,4X? %O ="$Force-on-Force Simulation Instructor%%V3.0 Objectives $This course is about SAFETY. OBJECTIVE: Instructors will be able to maintain a safe training environment while conducting f-o-f simulations It is not a instructor development course, nor a scenario development course, although these subjects are touched upon. Ken Murray s Training at the Speed of Life is a good resource here" ""d"""", AssumptionsThis course is designed for current firearms instructors. All potential instructors are familiar with current firearms and use of force doctrine and binding court decisions. All potential instructors are familiar with the concept of the force continuum and the proper place of firearms within it. The content and conduct of f-o-f simulations will be in line with agency use of force policy. ,9"P?(Three Levels of Training $Courtesy of Static: Range drills Weapons fundamentals Dynamic: Video simulators Decision making Interactive: Role-playing simulations Performance evaluation !ZZZZZ&ZZ $  &  Definitions: Simulation Types"$fSimulation refers to a realistic role-played enactment of potentially real situations. Force need not be involved. Force-on-force simulations are those requiring the use of some level of potential force by at least one role player. Integrated use of force simulations require at least one transition between force levels on the part of the officer student. bf k gf Reasons For Simulations$To improve officer performance To increase officer safety To increase public safety To induce training that is a realistic as possible To inoculate against the effects of stress and body alarm reaction To assess officer behavior in realistic situations To remediate such behavior as necessary To uncover areas of training deficiency--officer s and departments To reinforce good tactics To develop and assess judgmental skills To develop and test new tactics Morale and confidence builderLegal Dictates for Simulations$2Graham v. Connor 109 S.Ct. 1865 (1989) Board of County Commissioners of Bryon County, Oklahoma v. Brown, 520 U.S. 397, (1997) Oklahoma v. Tuttle 471 U.S. 808 (1985) City of Canton v. Harris, 489 U.S. 378 (1989) Tennessee v. Garner, 471 U.S. 1 (1985) Walker v. City of New York 974 F.2nd 292 (2nd Cir. 1992) Brown v. Gray, 227 F.3rd 1278 (10 Cir 2000) Allen v. Muskogee 119 F.3rd, 837 (10 Cir. 1997) Leatherman v. Tarrant County Narcotics and Intelligence and Coordination Unit, 113 S.Ct. 1160 (1993) Zuchel v. City and County of Denver, 997 F.2nd 730 (10 Cir. 1993) Popow v. City of Margate, 476 F.Supp. 1237 (D.N.J. 1979) Cornfield v. Consolidated High School District No. 230, 991 F.2nd 1316 (1993) Votour v. Vitale, 761 F.2nd 812 (1985) Davis v. Mason County State standards insufficient!Z"*"*""*-"*"*"*&"* "6Message From the Courts$5More frequent training Moving targets Reduced Light Judgmental training Use of cover Realistic environments Policy reinforcement Force level integration and transitions Relevance to assignments: patrol, undercover, investigations, undercover, etc. Whatever the officer can reasonably be expected to confont 86Z""=9# Good QuestionQUESTION: Have there been any court cases that have vindicated simulation training? ANSWER: Cases in which the police have a strong case are seldom appealed to the levels that make case law.& Kl/Simulation Technologies@Most Realistic Paintball Simunitions FX and similar Airmunitions Airsoft Quite Practical Dry real guns  but not recommended Blue guns Water pistols Cap guns^=Ev=E0 Paintball v .40 - .68 caliber balls typical Up to 300 hundred fps Compressed CO2 and N2 powered Long guns and handguns available One-several hundred dollars Non-restricted&" 1!Paintball Strengths / Weaknesses"" "Strengths Inexpensive Guns and gear easy to find Pain compliance Marking Weaknesses Not like real guns Can t use standard gear  holsters, etc Un-natural physical orientation necessary MarkingT ? m ? m2Simunitions FX and SimilartFires real rounds with paint filled bullet Approx. 400 fps Uses real but modified guns Restricted to LE and military31Simunitions FX & Similar Strengths / WeaknessespStrengths Actual weapons can use real gear Marking Pain compliance Weaknesses Actual weapons live fire potential Expensive both guns and rounds Guns must be continually cleaned MarkingL 9 k 9 kAirsoft$1:1 replicas 6mm BBs ABS or starch 0.12g - 0.5g 200-450 fps Hop-Up = underspin Spring guns (Green) Gas guns CO2 guns AEGs (Automatic Electric Guns) Note: upgrades and alterations potentially undesirableZZ7Z0 2 \-Airsoft Demonstration9 Demonstration and hand-on session with Airsoft weapons,88Airsoft Strengths$DLittle injury potential, even at close quarters Inexpensive True replica guns available  broad selection - normal equipment, techniques and tactics can be used Non-regulated devices Non Marking - can use actual deployment environments for training  buildings, cruisers, etc. No set-up time No specialized training required on part of participants Little protective equipment necessary  can use normal clothing, etc.@)Airsoft Weaknesses$(Non-marking? We don t think so Too little pain? Depends on protection Fragile Can t drop guns or magazines Handguns less reliable than we d preferA*A Word on BlanksActual blank guns are dangerous You re using real guns The gas/projectiles can cause injury SafeShot or similar You re using real guns Nothing escapes the gun so safer But all they do is make noise! Worth the risk and expense? Why not use dummy guns? Or cap pistols? Z<ZZ8ZZEZ <8E  5The Law of Large NumbersAny activity performed tens of thousands of times a year will result in every possible outcome Therefore we must strive for perfection, not just  safe enough & because 0.01% of ten thousand is someone s life! Currently about 2 officers lost per year in training Water leakage analogy No leakage is acceptable in a house Any leakage causes damage*>>B+Fatality Example0SWAT Exercise Real weapons used in training Loaded rifle introduced into area Officer was sent back to station to obtain it Rifle then  dry fired at PON@.@.7!Fatality ExampleTactical training Real weapons used in training Team loaded in van after lunch Member grabs mag from van after having trouble with his PO shot with live round from the magazine during exercise&6 Fatality ExampleFederal SpecOps Team Using MILES LASER system Live mag inserted into rifle Pre-exercise inspection had failed to find the live mag Team member killed&8"Fatality ExampleCanada Real weapons used in training Officer left training area to get camera from car Officer reloaded pistol since he was going into a public area He failed to clear when re-entering training area&;$Common Killing ThemesSafety protocol was insufficient  by definition People not searched in initially People leave training area and return without being searched Real weapons used in training Why?????? Unloaded real guns = dummy guns Reserve real weapons for marksmanship training Dummy and non-lethal projectile training guns for movement and tactics training4" ZZ=%$In Grandpa's Day& .$In Grandpa's day, range safety was minimal Today, we live and breathe the 4 firearms safety rules Today, simulation safety is minimal We must learn to be paranoid about  safety leakages It s a mindset/cultural change&bxK5TA Life-Saving Safety Protocol Two CriteriaNMust be completely safe Zero% safety leakage by design Must be practical cannot be so cumbersome, time-consuming, or resource intensive that it is impractical to implement Ballistic vest comfort / usage analogy No inordinate  rings of safety Uses reasonable number of people Takes little time " ZZu" ZzZZ uz  C-Two Kinds of Danger$5From projectiles From live weapons in training area 6#6  &+"Managing Airsoft Projectile Hazard##$^All role players (minimum) Goggles Neck protection Face protection Women: vest or other breast protection All participants (minimum) Goggles Optional but recommended Groin protection Gloves strongly recommended Long pants/shirt Ear protection strongly recommended Mouth guard Scalp protection  ball capZOZZZZZO  D.9Managing Simunitions FX and Paintball Projectiles Hazard::$All participants (minimum) Eye protection Neck protection Face protection Women: vest or breast protection Groin protection Gloves Long pants/shirt Ear protection Mouth guard Scalp protection  ball cap* .Making Simulation Area Safe From Live Weapons//$Physically separate Taped off if no hard physical boundary Difficult with expanded or mobile simulations But no excuse for not doing it! ONE entry point X exit points Free from non-participants except for approved observersU 9U     9  E/Sanitizing Chamber$Here weapons are removed, unloaded if necessary, and stored Bags/gear stored here, too Good idea to have a ballistic barrier for unloading Must be outside of the simulation area Must be locked or guarded at all timesF0 The Arsenal $Here training weapons are distributed Can be just outside the simulation area, put preferable to have it inside the area Only Instructor, AIs or SOs can distribute training weaponsL6Weapons ConsiderationsALL simulated weapons must be identifiable in hand and in holster Color band around grip and foregun Color coding? If you have multiple types of confusable training weapons All live-weapon four safety rules apply Training guns can cause injuries!TBl("B l( "<&Extended/Multiple Sites$jQuestion: What about multiple sites like sniper s nests? Answer: Make multiple sterile simulation areas, with appropriate safety officers (possibly in radio comm with Instructor.)03u4"Two People Responsible for Safety##$l Instructor Safety Officer(s)  Instructor designated> *6$ .Who s Also Responsible?$.EVERYONE is responsible All participants are required to call attention to safety violations Danger of  cool factor Brings out the child in everyone E! ' !   " fInstructor s Responsibilities  Prior to Simulation44$<Designing or approving the simulation Critical  NO un-aware participants in area! Designing the documentation Scripts for role players Training documentation Student paperwork Designing or approving the simulation area(s) Designing or approving the sanitizing chamber and the arsenal ~&-Bm&-BmH2vInstructor s Responsibilities  Prior to Simulation  con t<<$Designating SOs and AIs Getting all student paperwork filled out Making sure all pre-existing injuries are worked around Put the onus on the student to report a priori Mark student & brief role players about injury Align training weapons with protective equipmentBy^2y^2G1dInstructor s Responsibilities  During Simulation"32$ "Starting the simulation in action Stopping the action for safety or remediation Declaring the simulation over Keeping track of which projectiles hit whom Overall safety of the participants and bystanders Student coaching during the simulation Student de-briefing afterwardsHI&&*&.>SO s Responsibilities  One Job $(At least one SO designated NOT the Instructor One person cannot maintain control of all functions SO has NO other responsibilities other than safetyD.43. 43 I3DSO s Responsibilities  Clear Area##$Initial clear of area of ALL weapons and ammunition with 2-step protocol: Visual clear of the area Interrogative clear of the area Should also clear of other dangers  glass, sharp objects, tripping hazards, etc.`J Z9" ZR ZJ 9R J4VSO s Responsibilities  Clear Participants,,$Inspection of EVERY person coming into area with 3-step protocol Visual search of person Physical search of person Areas likely to contain weapons Cross-gender OK with discretion and search sticks Wanding has problems Interrogation of person Students can also check each other"ZZ2 ZgZ Z# Z"2g  #  8SO s Responsibilities - More$SO decisions FINAL  Instructor cannot over-rule If SO loses continuous control of area, must clear area and start from scratchD1OnM7Identification$BSOs, AIs and Instructor visually identifiable  bright cap or vest Non-participants (approved observers) can be color-coded as out of play with vest, cap, etc. ! Other Safety Considerations$At least one first responder kit on site All injuries sustained must be reported to Instructor 2nd safety violation = expulsion Horseplay is a violation All weapons present must be inert: OC, baton, pistol, non-lethal, etc. Dislodged protective equipment mandates stopping the action All weapons use under the eye of the Instructor  no student freelancingXZZZ)TN8Taser ConsiderationsZNeed to allow live Taser or dummy Taser is Taser is carried Live Taser can have either no cartridges or training cartridges  SO must search appropriately Training cartridges mandate a Taser training suit for role players Can get expensive Best bet is maybe no cartridges Train Taser firing separatelyTZZ ZZ #*Simulations Two Types$| See what happens Murray: Experimental Learning Teach a skill or elicit a desired behavior Murray: Experiential Learning ZZZ,ZZZ  " "   $To See What Happens$LSet it up Script appropriately Let it unfold Useful to: Explore a situation - research As a test of skills  assessment Best done with instructor or experienced cadre\-"  @/- @/%"To Teach a Skill/Desired Behavior *#$"$$LRequires careful thought and preparation Must build complex skills on foundation of elemental skills Elemental skills may not require projectile-firing equipment Break down real-world events into elemental skills Work skills backwards, like some firearms instructors Skills must be possible to perform for the student at their level<eBeB':Developing a Simulation to Teach a Skill/Elicit a Behavior;;$Specify the skill to be learned or the desired behavior If the desired behavior or skill to be learned requires multiple elemental skills to be first mastered, insure that this has first been done. Describe briefly and diagram the simulation Script the simulation to the appropriate degree (how can the scenario go sideways?) Prepare the role players Brief the student(s) Insure area safety Run the simulation Evaluate/de-brief the student t" Z" Z/ ""K"& What to Teach$Not just shooting Observation Judgments Cover Verbalization Distance management Force level selection & transition including no force and retreats Proficiency Focus on likely street events not just catastrophes,(Simulation Hints  POs as role players  pros and cons POs not always good actors  but can be! PO role players also learn Local actors usually available, but scheduling and liability issues Not a kid s game of paintball Have an on-deck area for next students through Video taping good, but potential liability put any destruction practice into policy DOCUMENT all training  see Murray for sample formsj$ Z Z Z$LP:0Simulation Hints  con t  DFor beginners, go very slow full speed not necessary Have to intelligently manage protective equipment w.r.t. the learning experience FIST suits? Taser suits? Practice immediate remediation send student out with a  pass Hot/cold training area Clear training weapons after simulation over?|ZZ?Z Z. Z?.Q;0Simulation Hints  con t  Bad guys must know when to  die  scripting issue Good guys never  die  they always fight until the simulation stopped by Instructor Keep it realistic # shots fired, calling out of action/still in action, etc. Winning is preferable, in general, to losing Except to drill home a failure mode must emphasize that it was a failure drill Don t use regular radio frequencies for simulations tZOZ4ZZZO4R< When to endDContinue simulation until problem resolved. Murray 3 possibilities: Subject under arrest Situation under control; parties depart Officer waiting for other units If subject under arrest, continue to: Cuffing? Radio transmissions complete Weapon reloaded Officer behind cover if appropriate jE]&ZE]&Z>'What s Next   ,Test Running simulations  h:(  hr h S 2    h S  8pp  "P@08XH h 0޽h ? ̙33  p$(  pr p S A   r p S hB  H p 0޽h ? ̙33  0(  x  c $Y   x  c $Z`0P   H  0޽h ? ̙33r b;͈=ϊC- >Rt( :*F/ 0|DTimes New RomanV hPv 0h( 0DArialNew RomanV hPv 0h( 0" DCom      !"#$%&'()*+,-./0123456789:;<=>?@ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOic Sans MSnV hPv 0h( 0B0DOldEnglishMSnV hPv 0h( 0"@DWingdingsMSnV hPv 0h( 0 ` .  @n?" dd@  @@`` v< !(+2346!7 <     < <;7%  "#*),-$/189:?$pR$2I)UQgtّ+ pR$>%m5By  pc $p̙33f3@ g4BdBdv 0\"ppp@ <4BdBd` 0W pթʚ;2Nʚ;<4!d!d{ 0t<4dddd{ 0t___PPT9/ 0($ 5L3,4X? %O =x$Force-on-Force Simulation Instructor%%V3.0 Objectives $This course is about SAFETY. OBJECTIVE: Instructors will be able to maintain a safe training environment while conducting f-o-f simulations It is not a instructor development course, nor a scenario development course, although these subjects are touched upon. Ken Murray s Training at the Speed of Life is a good resource here" ""d"""", AssumptionsThis course is designed for current firearms instructors. All potential instructors are familiar with current firearms and use of force doctrine and binding court decisions. All potential instructors are familiar with the concept of the force continuum and the proper place of firearms within it. The content and conduct of f-o-f simulations will be in line with agency use of force policy. ,9"P?(Three Levels of Training $Courtesy of Static: Range drills Weapons fundamentals Dynamic: Video simulators Decision making Interactive: Role-playing simulations Performance evaluation !ZZZZZ&ZZ $  &  Definitions: Simulation Types"$fSimulation refers to a realistic role-played enactment of potentially real situations. Force need not be involved. Force-on-force simulations are those requiring the use of some level of potential force by at least one role player. Integrated use of force simulations require at least one transition between force levels on the part of the officer student. bf k gf Reasons For Simulations$To improve officer performance To increase officer safety To increase public safety To induce training that is a realistic as possible To inoculate against the effects of stress and body alarm reaction To assess officer behavior in realistic situations To remediate such behavior as necessary To uncover areas of training deficiency--officer s and departments To reinforce good tactics To develop and assess judgmental skills To develop and test new tactics Morale and confidence builderLegal Dictates for Simulations$2Graham v. Connor 109 S.Ct. 1865 (1989) Board of County Commissioners of Bryon County, Oklahoma v. Brown, 520 U.S. 397, (1997) Oklahoma v. Tuttle 471 U.S. 808 (1985) City of Canton v. Harris, 489 U.S. 378 (1989) Tennessee v. Garner, 471 U.S. 1 (1985) Walker v. City of New York 974 F.2nd 292 (2nd Cir. 1992) Brown v. Gray, 227 F.3rd 1278 (10 Cir 2000) Allen v. Muskogee 119 F.3rd, 837 (10 Cir. 1997) Leatherman v. Tarrant County Narcotics and Intelligence and Coordination Unit, 113 S.Ct. 1160 (1993) Zuchel v. City and County of Denver, 997 F.2nd 730 (10 Cir. 1993) Popow v. City of Margate, 476 F.Supp. 1237 (D.N.J. 1979) Cornfield v. Consolidated High School District No. 230, 991 F.2nd 1316 (1993) Votour v. Vitale, 761 F.2nd 812 (1985) Davis v. Mason County State standards insufficient!Z"*"*""*-"*"*"*&"* "6Message From the Courts$5More frequent training Moving targets Reduced Light Judgmental training Use of cover Realistic environments Policy reinforcement Force level integration and transitions Relevance to assignments: patrol, undercover, investigations, undercover, etc. Whatever the officer can reasonably be expected to confont 86Z""=9# Good QuestionQUESTION: Have there been any court cases that have vindicated simulation training? ANSWER: Cases in which the police have a strong case are seldom appealed to the levels that make case law.& Kl/Simulation Technologies@Most Realistic Paintball Simunitions FX and similar Airmunitions Airsoft Quite Practical Dry real guns  but not recommended Blue guns Water pistols Cap guns^=Ev=E0 Paintball v .40 - .68 caliber balls typical Up to 300 hundred fps Compressed CO2 and N2 powered Long guns and handguns available One-several hundred dollars Non-restricted&" 1!Paintball Strengths / Weaknesses"" "Strengths Inexpensive Guns and gear easy to find Pain compliance Marking Weaknesses Not like real guns Can t use standard gear  holsters, etc Un-natural physical orientation necessary MarkingT ? m ? m2Simunitions FX and SimilartFires real rounds with paint filled bullet Approx. 400 fps Uses real but modified guns Restricted to LE and military31Simunitions FX & Similar Strengths / WeaknessespStrengths Actual weapons can use real gear Marking Pain compliance Weaknesses Actual weapons live fire potential Expensive both guns and rounds Guns must be continually cleaned MarkingL 9 k 9 kAirsoft$1:1 replicas 6mm BBs ABS or starch 0.12g - 0.5g 200-450 fps Hop-Up = underspin Spring guns (Green) Gas guns CO2 guns AEGs (Automatic Electric Guns) Note: upgrades and alterations potentially undesirableZZ7Z0 2 \-Airsoft Demonstration9 Demonstration and hand-on session with Airsoft weapons,88Airsoft Strengths$DLittle injury potential, even at close quarters Inexpensive True replica guns available  broad selection - normal equipment, techniques and tactics can be used Non-regulated devices Non Marking - can use actual deployment environments for training  buildings, cruisers, etc. No set-up time No specialized training required on part of participants Little protective equipment necessary  can use normal clothing, etc.@)Airsoft Weaknesses$(Non-marking? We don t think so Too little pain? Depends on protection Fragile Can t drop guns or magazines Handguns less reliable than we d preferA*A Word on BlanksActual blank guns are dangerous You re using real guns The gas/projectiles can cause injury SafeShot or similar You re using real guns Nothing escapes the gun so safer But all they do is make noise! Worth the risk and expense? Why not use dummy guns? Or cap pistols? Z<ZZ8ZZEZ <8E  5The Law of Large NumbersAny activity performed tens of thousands of times a year will result in every possible outcome Therefore we must strive for perfection, not just  safe enough & because 0.01% of ten thousand is someone s life! Currently about 2 officers lost per year in training Water leakage analogy No leakage is acceptable in a house Any leakage causes damage*>>B+Fatality Example0SWAT Exercise Real weapons used in training Loaded rifle introduced into area Officer was sent back to station to obtain it Rifle then  dry fired at PON@.@.7!Fatality ExampleTactical training Real weapons used in training Team loaded in van after lunch Member grabs mag from van after having trouble with his PO shot with live round from the magazine during exercise&6 Fatality ExampleFederal SpecOps Team Using MILES LASER system Live mag inserted into rifle Pre-exercise inspection had failed to find the live mag Team member killed&8"Fatality ExampleCanada Real weapons used in training Officer left training area to get camera from car Officer reloaded pistol since he was going into a public area He failed to clear when re-entering training area&;$Common Killing ThemesSafety protocol was insufficient  by definition People not searched in initially People leave training area and return without being searched Real weapons used in training Why?????? Unloaded real guns = dummy guns Reserve real weapons for marksmanship training Dummy and non-lethal projectile training guns for movement and tactics training4" ZZ=%$In Grandpa's Day& .$In Grandpa's day, range safety was minimal Today, we live and breathe the 4 firearms safety rules Today, simulation safety is minimal We must learn to be paranoid about  safety leakages It s a mindset/cultural change&bxK5TA Life-Saving Safety Protocol Two CriteriaNMust be completely safe Zero% safety leakage by design Must be practical cannot be so cumbersome, time-consuming, or resource intensive that it is impractical to implement Ballistic vest comfort / usage analogy No inordinate  rings of safety Uses reasonable number of people Takes little time " ZZu" ZzZZ uz  C-Two Kinds of Danger$5From projectiles From live weapons in training area 6#6  &+"Managing Airsoft Projectile Hazard##$^All role players (minimum) Goggles Neck protection Face protection Women: vest or other breast protection All participants (minimum) Goggles Optional but recommended Groin protection Gloves strongly recommended Long pants/shirt Ear protection strongly recommended Mouth guard Scalp protection  ball capZOZZZZZO  D.9Managing Simunitions FX and Paintball Projectiles Hazard::$All participants (minimum) Eye protection Neck protection Face protection Women: vest or breast protection Groin protection Gloves Long pants/shirt Ear protection Mouth guard Scalp protection  ball cap* .Making Simulation Area Safe From Live Weapons//$Physically separate Taped off if no hard physical boundary Difficult with expanded or mobile simulations But no excuse for not doing it! ONE entry point X exit points Free from non-participants except for approved observersU 9U     9  E/Sanitizing Chamber$Here weapons are removed, unloaded if necessary, and stored Bags / gear stored here, too Good idea to have a ballistic barrier for unloading Must be outside of the simulation area Must be locked or guarded at all times< F0 The Arsenal $Here training weapons are distributed Can be just outside the simulation area, put preferable to have it inside the area Only Instructor, AIs or SOs can distribute training weaponsL6Weapons ConsiderationsALL simulated weapons must be identifiable in hand and in holster Color band around grip and foregun Color coding? If you have multiple types of confusable training weapons All live-weapon four safety rules apply Training guns can cause injuries!TBl("B l( "<&Extended/Multiple Sites$jQuestion: What about multiple sites like sniper s nests? Answer: Make multiple sterile simulation areas, with appropriate safety officers (possibly in radio comm with Instructor.)03u4"Two People Responsible for Safety##$l Instructor Safety Officer(s)  Instructor designated> *6$ .Who s Also Responsible?$.EVERYONE is responsible All participants are required to call attention to safety violations Danger of  cool factor Brings out the child in everyone E! ' !   " fInstructor s Responsibilities  Prior to Simulation44$<Designing or approving the simulation Critical  NO un-aware participants in area! Designing the documentation Scripts for role players Training documentation Student paperwork Designing or approving the simulation area(s) Designing or approving the sanitizing chamber and the arsenal ~&-Bm&-BmH2vInstructor s Responsibilities  Prior to Simulation  con t<<$Designating SOs and AIs Getting all student paperwork filled out Making sure all pre-existing injuries are worked around Put the onus on the student to report a priori Mark student & brief role players about injury Align training weapons with protective equipmentBy^2y^2G1dInstructor s Responsibilities  During Simulation"32$ "Starting the simulation in action Stopping the action for safety or remediation Declaring the simulation over Keeping track of which projectiles hit whom Overall safety of the participants and bystanders Student coaching during the simulation Student de-briefing afterwards(x&.>SO s Responsibilities  One Job $(SO has NO other responsibilities other than safety At least one SO designated NOT the Instructor One person cannot maintain control of all functionsHa42 / 3$5V I3DSO s Responsibilities  Clear Area##$Initial clear of area of ALL weapons and ammunition with 2-step protocol: Visual clear of the area Interrogative clear of the area Should also clear of other dangers  glass, sharp objects, tripping hazards, etc.`J Z9" ZR ZJ 9R J4VSO s Responsibilities  Clear Participants,,$Inspection of EVERY person coming into area with 3-step protocol Visual search of person Physical search of person Areas likely to contain weapons Cross-gender OK with discretion and search sticks Wanding has problems Interrogation of person Students can also check each other"ZZ2 ZgZ Z# Z"2g  #  8SO s Responsibilities - More$SO decisions FINAL  Instructor cannot over-rule If SO loses continuous control of area, must clear area and start from scratchD1OnM7Identification$BSOs, AIs and Instructor visually identifiable  bright cap or vest Non-participants (approved observers) can be color-coded as out of play with vest, cap, etc. ! Other Safety Considerations$At least one first responder kit on site All injuries sustained must be reported to Instructor 2nd safety violation = expulsion Horseplay is a violation All weapons present must be inert: OC, baton, pistol, non-lethal, etc. Dislodged protective equipment mandates stopping the action All weapons use under the eye of the Instructor  no student freelancingXZZZ)TN8Taser ConsiderationsNeed to allow live Taser or dummy Taser is Taser is carried Live Taser can have either no cartridges or training cartridges  SO must search appropriately Training cartridges mandate a Taser training suit for role players Can get expensive Best bet is maybe live Taser w/ no cartridges Train actual Taser firing separatelyT.%.%, #*Simulations Two Types$| See what happens Murray: Experimental Learning Teach a skill or elicit a desired behavior Murray: Experiential Learning ZZZ,ZZZ  " "   $To See What Happens$LSet it up Script appropriately Let it unfold Useful to: Explore a situation - research As a test of skills  assessment Best done with instructor or experienced cadre\-"  @/- @/%"To Teach a Skill/Desired Behavior *#$"$$LRequires careful thought and preparation Must build complex skills on foundation of elemental skills Elemental skills may not require projectile-firing equipment Break down real-world events into elemental skills Work skills backwards, like some firearms instructors Skills must be possible to perform for the student at their level<eBeB':Developing a Simulation to Teach a Skill/Elicit a Behavior;;$Specify the skill to be learned or the desired behavior If the desired behavior or skill to be learned requires multiple elemental skills to be mastered, insure that this has been done. Describe briefly and diagram the simulation Script the simulation to the appropriate degree (how can the scenario go sideways?) Prepare the role players Brief the student(s) Insure area safety Run the simulation Evaluate/de-brief the student t" Z" Z/ ""?",& What to Teach$Not just shooting Observation Judgments Cover Verbalization Distance management Force level selection & transition including no force and retreats Proficiency Focus on likely street events not just catastrophes@4(Simulation Hints  POs as role players  pros and cons POs not always good actors  but can be! PO role players also learn Local actors usually available, but scheduling and liability issues Not a kid s game of paintball keep realistic Have an on-deck area for next students through Video taping good, but potential liability put any destruction practice into policy DOCUMENT all training  see Murray for sample formsj$ Z Z Z$[P:0Simulation Hints  con t  DFor beginners, go very slow full speed not necessary Have to intelligently manage protective equipment w.r.t. the learning experience FIST suits? Taser suits? Practice immediate remediation send student out with a  pass Hot/cold training area Clear training weapons after simulation over?|ZZ?Z Z. Z?.Q;0Simulation Hints  con t  Bad guys must know when to  die  scripting issue Good guys never  die  they always fight until the simulation stopped by Instructor Keep it realistic number shots fired, calling out of action/still in action, etc. Winning is preferable, in general, to losing Except to drill home a failure mode then must emphasize that it was a failure drill Don t use regular radio frequencies for simulations tZTZ4ZZZT4, ]R< When to endDContinue simulation until problem resolved. Murray 3 possibilities: Subject under arrest Situation under control; parties depart Officer waiting for other units If subject under arrest, continue to: Cuffing? Radio transmissions complete Weapon reloaded Officer behind cover if appropriate jE]&ZE]&Z>'What s Next   ,Test Running simulations   $(  r  S {   r  S h{  H  0޽h ? ̙33  $(  r  S Ĭ   r  S   H  0޽h ? ̙33  $(  r  S 4   r  S   H  0޽h ? ̙33  :(  r  S      S p  "P@08XH  0޽h ? ̙33  $(  r  S    r  S $  H  0޽h ? ̙33  P:(  r  S $"     S d  "P@08XH  0޽h ? ̙33  `$(  r  S 3   r  S `4  H  0޽h ? ̙33  p$(  r  S @   r  S A  H  0޽h ? ̙33  $(  r  S 4O   r  S O@  H  0޽h ? ̙33rH&0t0r.`2.(E$G&I*N,QL4 ێ86Rt